Infectious Diseases

Infectious Diseases Data

In this section:

Overall Yearly and Quarterly Summaries

Cases of infectious diseases of public health significance in Ottawa residents are reportable to the Medical Officer of Health at Ottawa Public Health under the Health Protection and Promotion Act (HPPA) and associated regulations.  Reports are made primarily by laboratories, but healthcare providers are also required to report.

These tables show recent data for infectious diseases of public health significance in Ottawa. Data are presented as crude counts of cases and as incidence rates.

Infectious Diseases of Public Health Significance by Year
Infectious Diseases of Public Health Significance by Year for Ottawa Residents (Number of Cases)
Table 1. Cases of infectious Disease of Public Health Significance in Ottawa by year, 2013 to 2017
Infectious Disease2013 Counts2014 Counts2015 Counts2016 Counts2017 Counts
Acute Flaccid Paralysis 0 1 0 0 0
Adverse Vaccine Reaction 68 58 66 52 55
AIDS Cases 6 3 4 10 11
Amebiasis, Confirmed and Probable Cases 74 73 86 73 76
Anthrax 0 0 0 0 0
Botulism 0 0 0 0 0
Brucellosis, Confirmed and Probable Cases 3 0 2 2 0
Campylobacter enteritis 216 224 172 173 191
Chancroid 0 0 0 0 0
Chickenpox 65 37 75 78 74
Chlamydia 2401 2581 3057 3263 3452
Cholera 0 0 0 0 1
Creutzfeld-Jacob Disease 1 0 0 0 1
Cryptosporidiosis 12 21 29 45 18
Cyclospora 3 8 13 19 17
Diphtheria 0 0 0 0 0
Encephalitis 3 0 3   1
Giardiasis, Confirmed and Probable 81 106 134 139 120
Gonorrhea 252 324 328 371 639
Haemophilus influenzae b, Invasive 0 0 1 0 0
Hantavirus 0 0 0 0 0
Hemorrhagic Fevers 0 0 0 0 0
Hepatitis A 6 4 5 5 4
Hepatitis B - Carriers 150 162 152 156 150
Hepatitis B - Cases 5 3 1 4 2
Hepatitis C 228 227 223 220 269
HIV Infections 61 56 47 61 63
Influenza A 429 412 584 521 477
Influenza B 45 110 150 105 110
Lassa Fever 0 0 0 0 0
Legionella Infections 7 2 3 3 4
Leprosy 0 0 0 1 0
Listeriosis 1 2 7 7 3
Lyme Disease, Confirmed and Probable Cases 49 22 73 76 190
Malaria 18 20 17 36 32
Measles 0 4 0 2 0
Meningitis 15 10 16 17 21
Meningococcal Disease 1 0 4 3 4
Mumps, Confirmed and Probable Cases 2 0 1 7 4
Ophthalmia Neonatorum 0 0 0 0 0
Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning 0 0 0 0 0
Paratyphoid Fever 2 1 1 1 2
Pertussis, Confirmed and Probable Cases 11 14 29 17 25
Plague 0 0 0 0 0
Polio 0 0 0 0 0
Psittacosis/Ornithosis 0 0 0 0 0
Q Fever 0 0 0 0 0
Rabies 0 0 0 0 0
Rubella 0 0 0 0 0
Rubella, Congenital Syndrome 0 0 0 0 0
Salmonellosis 130 182 156 175 173
Shigellosis 29 27 23 39 27
Smallpox 0 0 0 0 0
Streptococcal Infections, Group A Invasive 53 56 39 42 68
Streptococcal Infections, Group B Neonatal 5 4 0 4 6
Streptococcus pneumoniae, Invasive 68 75 61 71 73
Syphilis: Congenital 0 0 0 0 0
Syphilis: Infectious (1o, 2o, early latent) 30 44 100 136 105
Syphilis: Late Latent 60 51 60 73 57
Syphilis: Unspecified 0 1 5 2 17
TB of the Lung 33 35 29 22 24
TB: All cases 52 51 46 41 46
Tetanus 0 0 0 0 0
Trichinosis 0 0 0 0 0
Tularemia 0 0 0 0 0
Typhoid Fever 4 1 1 2 9
Verotoxin-producing E. Coli / Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome (VTEC/HUS) 6 3 14 7 4
West Nile Virus, Confirmed and Probable Cases 4 2 0 2 20
Yellow Fever 0 0 0 0 0
Yersiniosis 10 8 9 13 13
Data Source and Notes for Table 1
Ottawa Public Health. Integrated Public Health Information System (iPHIS), Ontario Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care, 2018. [Extracted on November 14, 2018]
  • iPHIS is a dynamic reporting system which allows for on-going updates to previously entered data. As such, data extracted from iPHIS provides a snapshot of information at the time of data extraction, and can vary from previous and subsequent data extractions.
  • The following diseases are reported as a sum of confirmed and probable cases: amebiasis, giardiasis, brucellosis, Lyme disease, mumps, pertussis, and West Nile Virus.
  • AIDS cases are usually reported only upon diagnosis of HIV infection.
  • All cases, except for tuberculosis (TB) cases and HIV infections, are assigned to a date based on episode date (the earliest of symptom onset, laboratory testing, and reporting). TB cases are assigned based on diagnosis date and HIV infections are assigned based on reported date.
  • There is a lag in reporting associated with most reportable communicable diseases.
  • Reportable communicable diseases are generally underreported due to several factors, which may include low morbidity and incentive for testing, no health care sought, clinical rather than laboratory-based diagnoses, and the inability to identify an aetiological agent from a laboratory specimen.
Infectious Diseases of Public Health Significance by Year for Ottawa Residents (Incidence Rate per 100,000)
Table 2. Incidence rates (per 100,000 population) for infectious Diseases of Public Health Significance in Ottawa by year, 2013 to 2017
Disease2013 Rates2014 Rates2015 Rates2016 Rates2017 Rates
Acute Flaccid Paralysis 0.0 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.0
Adverse Vaccine Reaction 7.3 6.1 6.9 5.4 5.6
AIDS Cases 0.6 0.3 0.4 1.0 1.1
Amebiasis, Confirmed and Probable Cases 7.9 7.7 9.0 7.5 7.7
Anthrax 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Botulism 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Brucellosis, Confirmed and Probable Cases 0.3 0.0 0.2 0.2 0.0
Campylobacter enteritis 23.1 23.7 18.0 17.8 19.3
Chancroid 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Chickenpox 6.9 3.9 7.8 8.0 7.5
Chlamydia 256.6 272.7 319.5 335.8 349.7
Cholera 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.1
Creutzfeld-Jacob Disease 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.1
Cryptosporidiosis 1.3 2.2 3.0 4.6 1.8
Cyclospora 0.3 0.8 1.4 2.0 1.7
Diphtheria 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Encephalitis 0.3 0.0 0.3 0.1 0.1
Giardiasis, Confirmed and Probable 8.7 11.2 14.0 14.3 12.2
Gonorrhea 26.9 34.2 34.3 38.2 64.7
Haemophilus influenzae b, Invasive 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.0 0.0
Hantavirus 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Hemorrhagic Fevers 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Hepatitis A 0.6 0.4 0.5 0.5 0.4
Hepatitis B - Carriers 16.0 17.1 15.9 16.1 15.2
Hepatitis B - Cases 0.5 0.3 0.1 0.4 0.2
Hepatitis C 24.5 24.0 23.3 22.6 27.3
HIV Infections 6.5 5.9 4.9 6.3 6.4
Influenza A 45.8 43.5 61.0 53.6 48.3
Influenza B 4.8 11.6 15.7 10.8 11.1
Lassa Fever 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Legionella Infections 0.7 0.2 0.3 0.3 0.4
Leprosy 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.0
Listeriosis 0.1 0.2 0.7 0.7 0.3
Lyme Disease, Confirmed and Probable Cases 5.2 2.3 7.6 7.8 19.2
Malaria 1.9 2.1 1.8 3.7 3.2
Measles 0.0 0.4 0.0 0.2 0.0
Meningitis 1.6 1.1 1.7 1.7 2.1
Meningococcal Disease 0.1 0.0 0.4 0.3 0.4
Mumps, Confirmed and Probable Cases 0.2 0.0 0.1 0.7 0.4
Ophthalmia Neonatorum 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Paratyphoid Fever 0.2 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.2
Pertussis, Confirmed and Probable Cases 1.2 1.5 3.0 1.7 2.5
Plague 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Polio 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Psittacosis/Ornithosis 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Q Fever 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Rabies 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Rubella 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Rubella, Congenital Syndrome 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Salmonellosis 13.9 19.2 16.3 18.0 17.5
Shigellosis 3.1 2.9 2.4 4.0 2.7
Smallpox 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Streptococcal Infections, Group A Invasive 5.7 5.9 4.1 4.3 6.9
Streptococcal Infections, Group B Neonatal 0.5 0.4 0.0 0.4 0.6
Streptococcus pneumoniae, Invasive 7.3 7.9 6.4 7.3 7.4
Syphilis: Congenital 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Syphilis: Infectious (1o, 2o, early latent) 3.2 4.6 10.5 14.0 10.6
Syphilis: Late Latent 6.4 5.4 6.3 7.5 5.8
Syphilis: Unspecified 0.0 0.1 0.5 0.2 1.7
TB of the Lung 3.5 3.7 3.0 2.3 2.4
TB: All cases 5.6 5.4 4.8 4.2 4.8
Tetanus 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Trichinosis 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Tularemia 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Typhoid Fever 0.4 0.1 0.1 0.2 0.9
VTEC/HUS 0.6 0.3 1.5 0.7 0.4
West Nile Virus, Confirmed and Probable Cases 0.4 0.2 0.0 0.2 2.0
Yellow Fever 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Yersiniosis 1.1 0.8 0.9 1.3 1.3
Data Source and Notes for Table 2

Population estimates for 2013 to 2017, Ontario Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care, IntelliHEALTH Ontario. [Extracted by Ottawa Public Health in February 2017]

Ottawa Public Health. Integrated Public Health Information System (iPHIS), Ontario Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care, 2018. [Extracted on November 14, 2018]

  • iPHIS is a dynamic reporting system which allows for on-going updates to previously entered data. As such, data extracted from iPHIS provides a snapshot of information at the time of data extraction, and can vary from previous and subsequent data extractions.
  • The following diseases are reported as a sum of confirmed and probable cases: amebiasis, giardiasis, brucellosis, Lyme disease, mumps, pertussis, and West Nile Virus.
  • AIDS cases are included in the table but are usually reported only upon diagnosis of HIV infection.
  • All cases, except for tuberculosis (TB) cases and HIV infections, are assigned to a date based on episode date (the earliest of symptom onset, laboratory testing, and reporting). TB cases are assigned based on diagnosis date and HIV infections are assigned based on reported date.
  • There is a lag in reporting associated with most reportable communicable diseases.
  • Reportable communicable diseases are generally underreported due to several factors, which may include low morbidity and incentive for testing, no health care sought, clinical rather than laboratory-based diagnoses, and the inability to identify an aetiological agent from a laboratory specimen.
  • Rates based on small numbers (e.g., for vaccine-preventable diseases) may fluctuate dramatically from year to year, even when there is no meaningful difference. Year to year comparisons of these diseases should be interpreted with caution.
  • Rates are calculated as reports per 100,000 population.
Infectious Diseases of Public Health Significance by Quarter
Table 3. Case counts and incidence rate for infectious Diseases of Public Health Significance in Ottawa by Quarter, 2018

Disease

2018 YTD Cases

2018 YTD Rate

2017 YTD Cases

2017 YTD Rate

Quarter 1

Quarter 2

Quarter 3

Quarter 4

5-year Average for Current Quarter

Acute Flaccid Paralysis

1

0.1

0

0.0

0

1

0

 

0.2

Adverse Event Following Immunization (AEFI)

29

3.9

33

4.4

4

17

8

 

7.8

AIDS Cases

5

0.7

8

1.1

1

3

1

 

1.6

Amebiasis (confirmed & probable)

49

6.5

52

6.9

25

13

11

 

19

Anthrax

0

0.0

0

0.0

0

0

0

 

0

Blastomycosis

1

0.1

N/A

N/A

0

0

1

 

N/A

Botulism

0

0.0

0

0.0

0

0

0

 

0

Brucellosis (confirmed & probable)

1

0.1

0

0

0

1

0

 

1

Campylobacter enteritis

169

22.5

148

19.7

34

46

89

 

67

Carbapenamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae 

3

0.4

N/A

N/A

0

0

3

 

N/A

Chancroid

0

0.0

0

0.0

0

0

0

 

0

Chickenpox

54

7.2

49

6.5

15

26

13

 

12

Chlamydia

2,934

390.4

2,828

376.3

902

906

977

 

796

Cholera

0

0.0

1

0.1

0

0

0

 

0.2

Creutzfeld-Jakob Disease

0

0.0

1

0.1

0

0

0

 

0

Cryptosporidiosis

31

4.1

18

2.4

1

5

25

 

15

Cyclospora

24

3.2

17

2.3

0

13

11

 

5.2

Diphtheria

0

0.0

0

0.0

0

0

0

 

0

Echinococcus multilocularis infection 

0

0.0

N/A

N/A

0

0

0

 

N/A

Encephalitis

3

0.4

1

0.1

2

0

1

 

1

Giardiasis (confirmed & probable)

98

13.0

92

12.2

23

29

46

 

41

Gonorrhea

694

92.3

480

63.9

214

238

242

 

114

Haemophilus influenzae b, Invasive

0

0.0

0

0.0

0

0

0

 

0

Hantavirus

0

0.0

0

0.0

0

0

0

 

0

Hemorrhagic Fevers

0

0.0

0

0.0

0

0

0

 

0

Hepatitis A

5

0.7

0

0.0

1

1

3

 

0.8

Hepatitis B - Carriers

121

16.1

110

14.6

41

31

49

 

35

Hepatitis B - Cases

0

0.0

2

0.3

0

0

0

 

0.8

Hepatitis C (all cases)

246

32.7

185

24.6

72

90

84

 

54

Hepatitis C (newly acquired)

18

2.4

N/A

N/A

6

5

7

 

N/A

Hepatitis C (previously acquired)

67

8.9

N/A

N/A

28

19

20

 

N/A

HIV Infections

57

7.6

48

6.4

20

24

13

 

15

Influenza - Outbreak Associated  Cases 

912

121.3

515

68.5

865

47

0

 

0

Influenza A 

627

83.4

410

54.6

571

53

3

 

2.4

Influenza B

456

60.7

75

10.0

407

48

1

 

0.6

Lassa Fever

0

0.0

0

0.0

0

0

0

 

0

Legionella Infections

5

0.7

2

0.3

1

0

4

 

1.8

Leprosy

0

0.0

0

0.0

0

0

0

 

0

Listeriosis

2

0.3

1

0.1

1

0

1

 

2

Lyme Disease (confirmed & probable)

71

9.4

177

23.6

0

20

51

 

52

Measles

2

0.3

10

1.3

0

1

1

 

2.4

Meningitis

0

0.0

0

0.0

0

0

0

 

0.4

Meningococcal Disease

9

1.2

17

2.3

2

3

4

 

5.4

Mumps (confirmed & probable)

1

0.1

3

0.4

0

1

0

 

0.8

Ophthalmia Neonatorum

4

0.5

3

0.4

4

0

0

 

0.6

Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning

0

0.0

0

0.0

0

0

0

 

0

Paratyphoid Fever

0

0.0

0

0.0

0

0

0

 

0

Pertussis (confirmed & probable)

0

0.0

2

0.3

0

0

0

 

0.2

Plague

8

1.1

20

2.7

1

1

6

 

5.8

Polio

0

0.0

0

0.0

0

0

0

 

0

Psittacosis/Ornithosis

0

0.0

0

0.0

0

0

0

 

0

Q Fever

0

0.0

0

0.0

0

0

0

 

0

Rabies (human cases)

1

0.1

0

0.0

0

1

0

 

0

Rubella

0

0.0

0

0.0

0

0

0

 

0

Rubella, Congenital Syndrome

0

0.0

0

0.0

0

0

0

 

0

Salmonellosis

0

0.0

0

0.0

0

0

0

 

0

Shigellosis

146

19.4

141

18.8

56

41

49

 

49

Smallpox

23

3.1

22

2.9

10

5

8

 

9.2

Streptococcal Infections, Group A Invasive

0

0.0

0

0.0

0

0

0

 

0

Streptococcal Infections, Group B Neonatal

53

7.1

54

7.2

23

21

9

 

9

Streptococcus pneumoniae, Invasive

3

0.4

4

0.5

0

3

0

 

1.8

Syphilis: Congenital

48

6.4

50

6.7

28

10

10

 

11

Syphilis: Infectious (1o, 2o, early latent)

0

0.0

0

0.0

0

0

0

 

0

Syphilis: Late Latent

114

15.2

85

11.3

33

46

35

 

22

Syphilis: Unspecified

54

7.2

47

6.3

26

14

14

 

15

TB of the Lung

38

5.1

16

2.1

8

9

21

 

3.2

TB: All cases

15

2.0

19

2.5

6

3

6

 

8.6

Tetanus

34

4.5

37

4.9

10

9

15

 

12

Trichinosis

0

0.0

0

0.0

0

0

0

 

0

Tularemia

0

0.0

0

0.0

0

0

0

 

0

Typhoid Fever

0

0.0

0

0.0

0

0

0

 

0

Verotoxin-producing E. Coli / Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome (VTEC/HUS)

3

0.4

6

0.8

1

1

1

 

1.2

West Nile Virus (confirmed & probable)

6

0.8

3

0.4

0

3

3

 

3.4

Yersiniosis

6

0.8

20

2.7

0

0

6

 

5.6

Data Sources and Notes for Table 3

Population estimates for 2013 to 2017, Ontario Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care, IntelliHEALTH Ontario. [Extracted by Ottawa Public Health in February 2017]

Ottawa Public Health. Integrated Public Health Information System (iPHIS), Ontario Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care, 2018. [Extracted on November 14, 2018]

  • iPHIS is a dynamic reporting system which allows for on-going updates to previously entered data. As such, data extracted from iPHIS provides a snapshot of information at the time of data extraction, and can vary from previous and subsequent data extractions.
  • The following diseases are reported as a sum of confirmed and probable cases: amebiasis, giardiasis, brucellosis, Lyme disease, mumps, pertussis, and West Nile Virus.
  • AIDS cases are included in the table but are usually reported only upon diagnosis of HIV infection.
  • All cases, except for tuberculosis (TB) cases and HIV infections, are assigned to a date based on episode date (the earliest of symptom onset, laboratory testing, and reporting). TB cases are assigned based on diagnosis date and HIV infections are assigned based on reported date.
  • Blastomycosis, carbapenamase-producing enterobacteriaceae, Echinococcus multilocularis infection, and recently- and previously-acquired hepatitis C became reportable in January 2018.  Therefore, data for, and comparisons with, previous years are not available.
  • There is a lag in reporting associated with most reportable communicable diseases.
  • Reportable communicable diseases are generally underreported due to several factors, which may include low morbidity and incentive for testing; no health care sought; clinical rather than laboratory-based diagnoses; and the inability to identify an aetiological agent from a laboratory specimen.
  • Rates based on small numbers (e.g., for vaccine-preventable diseases) may fluctuate dramatically from year to year, even when there is no meaningful difference. Year to year comparisons of these diseases should be interpreted with caution.
  • Rates are calculated as reports per 100,000 population.

Enteric Diseases (e.g., Food and Water-borne) and Risk Factors

Enteric or gastrointestinal (GI) illnesses are often acquired through the ingestion of contaminated food or water. They can also be transmitted from person-to-person through fecal-oral contact, and transmission among sexual partners is being increasingly recognized.

Overall Trends

  • GI illnesses most frequently reported in Ottawa continue to be campylobacter enteritis (191 cases), salmonellosis (173 cases) and giardiasis (120 cases); these illnesses made up 73% (n=482/655) of all enteric illnesses reported in Ottawa during 2017 (Figure 1). [1]
  • The incidence of some enteric illnesses was higher in 2017 than in 2013: salmonellosis (130 cases), giardiasis (81 cases), and cyclosporiasis (3 cases in 2013 vs. 17 in 2017). 
  • Incidence of all enteric, food, and water-borne infections reported in Ottawa during 2017 were similar to provincial averages.[2]

Figure 1. Number of enteric infections, Ottawa, 2017

Horizontal bar chart of the number of enteric, food and water-borne infections reported by Ottawa residents in 2017

Data Source and Notes for Figure 1

Ottawa Public Health. Integrated Public Health Information System (iPHIS), Ontario Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care, 2018. [Extracted on September 13, 2018]

  • iPHIS is a dynamic reporting system which allows for on-going updates to previously entered data. As such, data extracted from iPHIS provides a snapshot of information at the time of data extraction, and can vary from previous and subsequent data extractions.
  • The following diseases are reported as a sum of confirmed and probable cases: amebiasis, giardiasis, and brucellosis.
  • Cases are assigned to a date based on episode date (the earliest of symptom onset, laboratory testing, and reporting). 
  • There is a lag in reporting associated with most reportable infectious diseases.
  • Reportable infectious diseases are generally underreported due to several factors, which may include low morbidity and incentive for testing; no health care sought; clinical rather than laboratory-based diagnoses; and the inability to identify an aetiological agent from a laboratory specimen.
Data Tables for Figure 1
Table 4. Number of enteric infections, Ottawa, 2017

Disease

Counts

Campylobacter enteritis

191

Salmonellosis

173

Giardiasis

120

Amebiasis

76

Shigellosis

27

Cryptosporidiosis

18

Cyclospora

17

Yersiniosis

13

Typhoid Fever

9

Hepatitis A

4

Verotoxin-producing E. Coli / Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome

4

Listeriosis

3

Paratyphoid Fever

2

Cholera

1

Botulism

0

Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning

0

Trichinosis

0

  • Although GI illnesses are reported throughout the year, a higher number of cases are reported during summer months (Figure 2)  
  • Seasonal patterns in GI illnesses are often linked to increases in travel, warmer temperatures, outdoor activities, and social gatherings.  

Figure 2. Rate of all enteric infections, and the number Campylobacter enteritis, Salmonellosis, and Giardiasis infections , Ottawa, 2017, by episode month

Figure 2 is a bar graph of the number of campylobacter enteritis, salmonellosis, and confirmed and probable giardiasis infections reported by Ottawa residents by month in 2017. There is a line that represents the rate of all three of these types of infections per 100,000 population by month in 2017. The figure has been converted into a table below.

 Data Source and Notes for Figure 2

Ottawa Public Health. Integrated Public Health Information System (iPHIS), Ontario Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care, 2018. [Extracted on September 13, 2018]

  • iPHIS is a dynamic reporting system which allows for on-going updates to previously entered data. As such, data extracted from iPHIS provides a snapshot of information at the time of data extraction, and can vary from previous and subsequent data extractions.
  • There is a lag in reporting associated with most reportable infectious diseases.
  • Reportable infectious diseases are generally underreported due to several factors, which may include low morbidity and incentive for testing; no health care sought; clinical rather than laboratory-based diagnoses; and the inability to identify an aetiological agent from a laboratory specimen.
  • Rates are calculated as reports per 100,000 population.
 Data Table for Figure 2
Table 5. Rates of all enteric infections, and the number of campylobacter enteritis, salmonellosis, and giardiasis cases, Ottawa, 2017, by episode month

Disease

Jan

Feb

Mar

Apr

May

Jun

Jul

Aug

Sep

Oct

Nov

Dec

Campylobacter enteritis

15

18

11

15

10

18

21

20

20

22

8

13

Salmonellosis

14

16

13

12

9

13

20

26

18

10

11

10

Giardiasis

7

5

7

9

11

11

17

8

16

14

7

7

Overall rate (per 100,000 population)

36.1

39.1

31.1

36.1

30.1

42.1

58.2

54.2

54.2

46.2

26.1

30.1

Respiratory Diseases, Diseases Transmitted by Direct Contact, and Risk Factors

Respiratory infections and diseases transmitted by direct contact are infections that can spread from person to person through droplets in air (from a person coughing or sneezing) or through direct contact with an infected person. The epidemiology and symptoms of each disease can vary depending on the infectious agent.

Overall Trends
  • Incidence of most respiratory diseases and diseases transmitted by direct contact reported to Ottawa Public Health (OPH) in 2017 have been similar over the past 5 years, with the exception of seasonal influenza, invasive group A streptococcal (iGAS) disease and tuberculosis (TB). [1]

Figure 3. Number of respiratory infections and diseases transmitted by direct contact, 2017, and the number of influenza infections, 2017-2018, Ottawa

Figure 3 is a bar graph of the number of respiratory infections and diseases transmitted by direct contact reported by Ottawa residents in 2017. The figure has been converted into a table below.

Data Source and Notes for Figure 3

Ottawa Public Health. Integrated Public Health Information System (iPHIS), Ontario Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care, 2018. [Extracted on September 1, 2018]

  • iPHIS is a dynamic reporting system which allows for on-going updates to previously entered data. As such, data extracted from iPHIS provides a snapshot of information at the time of data extraction, and can vary from previous and subsequent data extractions.
  • Only active tuberculosis (TB) disease (not latent infection) reported to OPH are captured in the figure. 
  • All cases, except for TB, are assigned to a date based on episode date (the earliest of symptom onset, laboratory testing, and reporting). TB cases are assigned based on diagnosis date.
  • Reportable infectious diseases are generally underreported due to several factors, which may include low morbidity and incentive for testing; no health care sought; clinical rather than laboratory-based diagnoses; and the inability to identify an aetiological agent from a laboratory specimen.
Data Table for Figure 3
Table 6. Number of respiratory infections and diseases transmitted by direct contact, 2017, and the number of influenza infections, 2017-2018, Ottawa
DiseaseCounts
Influenza A - 2017/2018 Season 689
Influenza B - 2017/2018 Season 492
Streptococcal Infections, Group A Invasive 68
TB: All cases 46
TB of the Lung 24
Streptococcal Infections, Group B Neonatal 6
Legionella Infections 4
Meningococcal Disease 4
Leprosy 0
Psittacosis/Ornithosis 0
Influenza

Influenza, commonly known as the "flu", is a respiratory infection caused by the influenza virus. Influenza can easily spread from person to person. Common symptoms of influenza infections are fever, cough, chills, muscle aches, sore throat, headaches, loss of appetite, stuffy or runny nose, and fatigue. Annual influenza immunization is the most effective way to protect yourself and others against influenza.

Please refer to the Seasonal Respiratory Infections and Enteric Outbreaks Surveillance Reports webpage for up-to-date and historical seasonal influenza data and reports. The 2017-2018 influenza season covers the period from September 2017 to September 2018.

  • Influenza virus circulation follows a seasonal pattern, and most infections are reported between fall and spring (Figure 4). [1]
  • Influenza activity was higher than usual during the 2017-2018 respiratory disease season. [1]
  • The co-circulation of influenza A and influenza B was unique to the 2017-2018 season and may have contributed to the high number of laboratory-confirmed influenza cases reported during the season (Figure 4).
  • Although there was a high number of laboratory-confirmed influenza cases, the numbers of influenza outbreaks in institutions (i.e., hospitals, long-term care homes, and retirement homes), influenza-related deaths, and influenza-related hospitalizations were similar to past seasons.
  • The incidence of influenza in Ottawa in 2017 was lower than the average of Ontario-less-Ottawa (120/100,000 vs. 130/100,000). [2]

Each fall, the Universal Influenza Immunization Program (UIIP) makes influenza immunization available to all residents. During the 2017-18 influenza season, one-third (34%) of residents aged 18 to 64 years reported receiving an influenza immunization while three-quarters (78%) of residents 65 years of age and older received an influenza immunization, which was similar to previous influenza seasons for both age groups. [3] Please refer to the Influenza Immunization webpage for more information.

Figure 4. Number of reported laboratory-confirmed influenza cases by type and episode week, Ottawa, September 2017 (week 35) to August 2018 (week 34), and historical trends

A figure showing the number of laboratory confirmed influenza cases by week for Ottawa residents. The figure shows that most cases for the 2017/2018 season were reported from December to April. The figure has been converted into a table below.

 Data Source and Notes for Figure 4

Ministry of Health and Long-term Care (MOHLTC), integrated Public Health Information System (iPHIS), extracted by Ottawa Public Health, 2018

  • iPHIS is a dynamic reporting system which allows for on-going updates to previously entered data. As such, data extracted from iPHIS provides a snapshot of information at the time of data extraction, and can vary from previous and subsequent data extractions.
  • Reportable infectious diseases are generally underreported due to several factors, which may include low morbidity and incentive for testing; no health care sought; clinical rather than laboratory-based diagnoses; and the inability to identify an aetiological agent from a laboratory specimen.
  • wk: week
  • All influenza cases are assigned to a date based on episode date (the earliest of symptom onset, laboratory testing, and reporting).
Data Table for Figure 4
Table 7. Number of reported laboratory-confirmed influenza cases by type and episode week, Ottawa residents, September 2017 (week 35) to August 2018 (week 34) and historical trends

Flu Week 

Influenza A

Influenza B

2014-2015

2015-2016

2016-2017

Week 35 - 27  Aug

0

0

0

0

1

Week 36 - 03 Sep

1

1

0

0

0

Week 37 - 10 Sep

0

0

0

0

1

Week 38 - 17 Sep

1

0

0

0

1

Week 39 - 24 Sep

1

0

0

3

0

Week 40 - 01 Oct

0

0

0

0

0

Week 41 - 08 Oct

3

0

0

1

1

Week 42 - 15 Oct

0

0

1

1

0

Week 43 - 22 Oct

1

0

0

1

0

Week 44 - 29 Oct

0

0

0

0

1

Week 45 - 05 Nov

0

0

1

1

2

Week 46 - 12 Nov

3

1

0

0

1

Week 47 - 19 Nov

2

1

0

1

2

Week 48 - 26 Nov

6

3

5

1

5

Week 49 - 03 Dec

3

0

7

4

10

Week 50 - 10 Dec

9

4

21

1

14

Week 51 - 17 Dec

14

11

51

5

42

Week 52 - 24 Dec

24

12

65

4

60

Week 1 - 31 Dec

47

25

97

3

61

Week 2 - 07 Jan

46

38

98

7

50

Week 3 - 14 Jan

47

29

74

5

39

Week 4 - 21 Jan

37

21

56

14

34

Week 5 - 28 Jan

39

23

63

18

38

Week 6 - 04 Feb

50

39

53

29

35

Week 7 - 11 Feb

57

48

46

41

28

Week 8 - 18 Feb

66

51

49

54

25

Week 9 - 25 Feb

61

54

26

56

27

Week 10 - 04 Mar

37

35

34

61

16

Week 11 - 11 Mar

26

20

44

63

25

Week 12 - 18 Mar

28

13

38

23

12

Week 13 - 25 Mar

25

14

24

24

19

Week 14 - 01 Apr

18

18

12

19

11

Week 15 - 08 Apr

18

10

14

14

12

Week 16 - 15 Apr

7

6

14

13

11

Week 17 - 22 Apr

3

5

10

11

14

Week 18 - 29 Apr

1

7

14

9

7

Week 19 - 06 May

4

1

2

12

1

Week 20 - 13 May

1

1

3

2

7

Week 21 - 20 May

0

0

0

3

2

Week 22 - 27 May

0

0

0

2

2

Week 23 - 03 Jun

1

0

1

0

1

Week 24 - 10 Jun

0

0

0

0

0

Week 25 - 17 Jun

0

0

0

0

1

Week 26 - 24 Jun

0

0

0

0

1

Week 27 - 01 Jul

0

0

1

0

0

Week 28 - 08 Jul

0

0

0

0

0

Week 29 - 15 Jul

0

0

0

0

2

Week 30 - 22 Jul

0

0

0

0

0

Week 31 - 29 Jul

0

0

0

0

0

Week 32 - 05 Aug

1

0

0

0

0

Week 33 - 12 Aug

0

1

0

0

0

Week 34 - 19 Aug

1

0

0

0

0

Invasive Group A Streptococcal (iGAS) Disease

Invasive group A steptococcal (iGAS) infections can occur in skin, soft tissue, joints, the respiratory tract, or normally sterile sites of the body. Most serious iGAS cases are sterile site infections in the blood, spinal fluid, or soft tissue.

  • Chronic disease and underlying medical conditions, drug and alcohol use, and being homeless or underhoused were common risks identified among individuals with iGAS infections in Ottawa during 2017. [1] These risks are consistent with iGAS at-risk populations identified elsewhere in Canada. [4]
  • In 2017, 68 iGAS cases in Ottawa residents were reported to OPH, which is slightly higher than it was 5 years ago (53 cases in 2013). [1]
  • OPH continues to monitor iGAS infections among people who are homeless or underhoused in Ottawa, and collaborate with community partners to reduce the risk of infection transmission in shelter settings.
  • 2017 rates in Ottawa and in Ontario-less-Ottawa are similar, even though a significant increase was seen during 2013-17 across the rest of Ontario. [2]
Tuberculosis

Tuberculosis (TB) is an infection caused by a group of Mycobacterium bacteria species.

  • In 2017, 46 cases of TB were reported among Ottawa residents, a rate that is not different from what it was 5 years ago. [1]
  • The incidence of TB in Ottawa in 2017 was the same as the average of Ontario-less-Ottawa.  [2]
  • 85% of active TB infections diagnosed in Ottawa between 2013 and 2017 were among residents born outside Canada. Most frequently reported birth countries among these individuals include India, Somalia, Philippines, China, Ethiopia, and Haiti. [1] These countries are reported to be high TB incident regions by the World Health Organization. [5]
  • Rates among people born outside Canada, Indigenous individuals, and people who are marginally housed are disproportionately higher. [1,6,7]  

Long-term Care, Retirement Home, and Hospital Outbreaks

Respiratory and gastroenteritis infection outbreaks in institutions and public hospitals are reportable to local public health authorities.

Respiratory Outbreaks
  • The total number of respiratory outbreaks reported in Ottawa's institutions and public hospitals during the 2017-2018 season was similar to past seasons, but a higher number of outbreaks were caused by influenza B than in previous years (Figure 5). [1]
  • The increase in influenza B and influenza A and B respiratory outbreaks was likely due to the increased circulation of influenza B.

Figure 5. Number of respiratory infection outbreaks in institutions and public hospitals reported to Ottawa Public Health between September 2017 and September 2018, and the mean of the previous three seasons

Line and bar graph showing the number of respiratory infection outbreaks in institutions and public hospitals reported to Ottawa Public Health between September 2017 and September 2018, and the previous three season mean

Data Source and Notes for Figure 5

Ottawa Public Health. Integrated Public Health Information System (iPHIS), Ontario Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care, 2018. [Extracted on September 1, 2018]

  • iPHIS is a dynamic reporting system which allows for on-going updates to previously entered data. As such, data extracted from iPHIS provides a snapshot of information at the time of data extraction, and can vary from previous and subsequent data extractions.
  • Influenza cases and respiratory outbreaks in institutions and public hospitals meeting Ontario Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care (MOHLTC) case definitions for Diseases of Public Health Significance (DPHS), according to Ontario Public Health Standards: Requirements for Programs, Services, and Accountability (Standards): Infectious Diseases Protocol, are presented.
  • wk: week
Data Table for Figure 5
Table 8. Number of respiratory infection outbreaks in institutions and public hospitals reported to Ottawa Public Health between September 2017 and September 2018, and the mean of the previous three seasons

Surveillance Week

Non-influenza outbreaks

Influenza A outbreaks

Influenza B outbreaks

Influenza A and B outbreaks

Three season mean

Week 35 - 27 Aug

0

0

0

0

0.67

Week 36 - 03 Sep

2

0

0

0

0.67

Week 37 - 10 Sep

1

0

0

0

1.33

Week 38 - 17 Sep

1

0

0

0

2.67

Week 39 - 24 Sep

1

0

0

0

1.00

Week 40 - 01 Oct

4

1

0

0

2.33

Week 41 - 08 Oct

0

0

0

0

2.00

Week 42 - 15 Oct

0

0

0

0

2.00

Week 43 - 22 Oct

1

0

0

0

0.33

Week 44 - 29 Oct

2

0

0

0

1.00

Week 45 - 05 Nov

0

0

0

0

0.67

Week 46 - 12 Nov

1

0

0

0

0.67

Week 47 - 19 Nov

0

0

0

0

1.33

Week 48 - 26 Nov

0

0

0

0

0.33

Week 49 - 03 Dec

1

1

0

0

2.33

Week 50 - 10 Dec

1

1

1

0

2.33

Week 51 - 17 Dec

1

0

1

0

6.67

Week 52 - 24 Dec

2

1

2

0

9.00

Week 1 - 31 Dec

0

5

5

0

8.33

Week 2 - 07 Jan

6

3

5

0

9.67

Week 3 - 14 Jan

3

5

1

0

5.33

Week 4 - 21 Jan

3

3

1

0

4.00

Week 5 - 28 Jan

1

1

1

1

9.33

Week 6 - 04 Feb

0

2

3

0

4.33

Week 7 - 11 Feb

0

4

3

0

4.33

Week 8 - 18 Feb

2

2

5

0

5.00

Week 9 - 25 Feb

3

4

3

2

3.67

Week 10 - 04 Mar

1

2

0

1

3.00

Week 11 - 11 Mar

1

1

0

0

5.00

Week 12 - 18 Mar

1

3

1

1

4.00

Week 13 - 25 Mar

0

1

1

0

1.00

Week 14 - 01 Apr

1

1

1

0

1.00

Week 15 - 08 Apr

3

0

0

1

3.00

Week 16 - 15 Apr

4

0

0

0

0.33

Week 17 - 22 Apr

1

0

2

0

1.33

Week 18 - 29 Apr

0

0

1

0

2.00

Week 19 - 06 May

1

1

0

0

1.33

Week 20 - 13 May

1

0

0

0

0.33

Week 21 - 20 May

0

0

0

0

0.67

Week 22 - 27 May

1

0

0

0

1.00

Week 23 - 03 Jun

0

0

0

0

0.67

Week 24 - 10 Jun

0

0

0

0

0.67

Week 25 - 17 Jun

0

0

0

0

0.00

Week 26 - 24 Jun

3

0

0

0

0.33

Week 27 - 01 Jul

0

0

0

0

0.00

Week 28 - 08 Jul

2

0

0

0

0.33

Week 29 - 15 Jul

1

0

0

0

0.67

Week 30 - 22 Jul

0

0

0

0

1.67

Week 31 - 29 Jul

2

0

0

0

0.33

Week 32 - 05 Aug

0

0

0

0

0.33

Week 33 - 12 Aug

1

0

0

0

1.00

Week 34 - 19 Aug

2

0

0

0

0.33

  

Gastroenteritis Outbreaks
  • The total number of gastroenteritis outbreaks reported in Ottawa's institutions and public hospitals during the 2017-2018 season was lower than the previous 3 seasons (Figure 6). [1]
  • Two Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) outbreaks in public hospitals were reported to Ottawa Public Health during the 2017-2018 season.

Figure 6. Number of gastroenteritis outbreaks in Ottawa institutions and public hospitals, September 2017 to September 2018, and the mean of the three previous three seasons

Line and bar graph showing the number of gastroenteritis outbreaks in Institutions and public hospitals reported to Ottawa Public Health between September 2017 and September 2018, and the previous three season mean.

Data Source and Notes for Figure 6

Ottawa Public Health. Integrated Public Health Information System (iPHIS), Ontario Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care, 2018. [Extracted on September 1, 2018]

  • iPHIS is a dynamic reporting system which allows for on-going updates to previously entered data. As such, data extracted from iPHIS provides a snapshot of information at the time of data extraction, and can vary from previous and subsequent data extractions.
  • Clostridium difficile Infection (CDI) outbreaks in public hospitals meeting Ontario Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care (MOHLTC) case definitions for Diseases of Public Health Significance (DPHS), according to Ontario Public Health Standards: Requirements for Programs, Services, and Accountability (Standards): Infectious Diseases Protocol, are presented.
  • wk: week
Data Table for Figure 6
Table 9. Number of gastroenteritis outbreaks in Ottawa institutions and public hospitals, September 2017 to September 2018, and the mean of the previous three seasons

Surveillance Week

CDI

Norovirus

All other enterics

Three season mean

Week 35 - 27 Aug

0

0

0

0.0

Week 36 - 03 Sep

0

0

0

0.3

Week 37 - 10 Sep

0

0

1

0.7

Week 38 - 17 Sep

0

0

0

0.7

Week 39 - 24 Sep

0

0

0

0.3

Week 40 - 01 Oct

0

0

0

0.0

Week 41 - 08 Oct

0

0

0

0.3

Week 42 - 15 Oct

0

0

0

0.3

Week 43 - 22 Oct

0

0

0

0.3

Week 44 - 29 Oct

0

0

0

0.0

Week 45 - 05 Nov

0

0

0

0.7

Week 46 - 12 Nov

0

0

0

0.3

Week 47 - 19 Nov

0

0

1

0.3

Week 48 - 26 Nov

0

0

1

0.7

Week 49 - 03 Dec

0

0

1

0.7

Week 50 - 10 Dec

0

1

1

1.0

Week 51 - 17 Dec

0

1

1

0.0

Week 52 - 24 Dec

1

1

2

1.0

Week 1 - 31 Dec

0

2

2

3.3

Week 2 - 07 Jan

0

1

1

2.7

Week 3 - 14 Jan

0

1

0

3.0

Week 4 - 21 Jan

0

2

1

1.7

Week 5 - 28 Jan

0

1

0

3.7

Week 6 - 04 Feb

0

0

0

3.3

Week 7 - 11 Feb

0

0

1

1.3

Week 8 - 18 Feb

0

0

2

2.7

Week 9 - 25 Feb

0

1

1

4.0

Week 10 - 04 Mar

0

0

1

3.3

Week 11 - 11 Mar

0

0

0

3.3

Week 12 - 18 Mar

0

0

0

4.3

Week 13 - 25 Mar

0

0

2

2.7

Week 14 - 01 Apr

0

0

0

3.7

Week 15 - 08 Apr

1

0

0

1.3

Week 16 - 15 Apr

0

1

0

3.0

Week 17 - 22 Apr

0

0

0

2.7

Week 18 - 29 Apr

0

0

0

1.3

Week 19 - 06 May

0

0

1

0.7

Week 20 - 13 May

0

0

0

0.3

Week 21 - 20 May

0

0

0

1.0

Week 22 - 27 May

0

0

0

1.0

Week 23 - 03 Jun

0

0

0

0.3

Week 24 - 10 Jun

0

0

0

0.0

Week 25 - 17 Jun

0

0

0

0.0

Week 26 - 24 Jun

0

0

0

0.0

Week 27 - 01 Jul

0

0

0

0.3

Week 28 - 08 Jul

0

0

0

0.0

Week 29 - 15 Jul

0

0

0

0.0

Week 30 - 22 Jul

0

0

0

0.0

Week 31 - 29 Jul

0

0

0

0.3

Week 32 - 05 Aug

0

0

0

0.0

Week 33 - 12 Aug

0

0

0

0.3

Week 34 - 19 Aug

0

0

0

0.0

Sexually Transmitted and Blood-borne Infections (STBBIs) and Risk Factors

Some sexually transmitted and blood-borne infections (STBBIs) are spread through body fluids (e.g., blood, vaginal fluid, semen) while others are spread through non-sexual activities such as sharing needles used for injecting drugs.

  • Reportable sexually transmitted infections include chlamydia, gonorrhea, hepatitis B, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), syphilis, and rarely, hepatitis C.
  • Reportable blood-borne infections include hepatitis B, hepatitis C, and HIV.
  • Certain reportable infections can be transmitted both through blood and sexually, these include hepatitis B, HIV, and rarely, hepatitis C.
Overall Trends
  • The incidence of several sexually-transmitted infections has increased significantly over the past five years, whereas the rate of transmission of bloodborne infections has been relatively steady.
  • Trends in sexually transmitted and blood-borne infections (STBBIs) are associated with factors such as age, ethnicity, income, gender, and sexual orientation. [8]  Populations most affected by STBBIs in Ottawa include youth; gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (MSM); people who use drugs; and people who come from a country where infection is common. [1]

Figure 7. Number of reported sexually transmitted and blood-borne infections, Ottawa, 2017

A bar graph of the number of reported sexually transmitted and bloodborne infections among Ottawa residents in 2017. The figure has been converted into a table below.

Data Source and Notes for Figure 7

Ministry of Health and Long-term Care (MOHLTC), integrated Public Health Information System (iPHIS), extracted by Ottawa Public Health, June 11, 2018.

  • iPHIS is a dynamic reporting system which allows for on-going updates to previously entered data. As such, data extracted from iPHIS provides a snapshot of information at the time of data extraction, and can vary from previous and subsequent data extractions.
  • HIV: human immunodeficiency virus
  • AIDS: acquired immunodeficiency syndrome
  • Reportable communicable diseases are generally underreported due to several factors, which may include low morbidity and incentive for testing; no health care sought; clinical rather than laboratory-based diagnoses; and the inability to identify identify an aetiological agent from a laboratory specimen.
  • AIDS cases are included in the table but are usually reported only upon diagnosis of HIV infection.
  • All cases, except for HIV infections, are assigned to a year based on episode date (the earliest of symptom onset, laboratory testing, and reporting). HIV infections are assigned to a year based on reported date.  In some cases, particularly for HIV, infection may not have occurred prior to the assigned year.
  • There is a lag in reporting associated with most reportable communicable diseases.
Data Table for Figure 7
Table 8. Number of reported sexually transmitted and blood-borne infections, Ottawa, 2017

Infection

Number of cases

Chlamydia

3,452

Gonorrhea

639

Hepatitis C - Acute & Chronic

269

Syphilis: Infectious

105

HIV Infections (including AIDS)

63

AIDS Cases

11

Hepatitis B - Acute

2

Chlamydia
  • Chlamydia is the most frequently reported of all reportable infections. Chlamydia incidence has been increasing since the late 1990s and is now the highest it has been since that time. [1] The incidence in 2017 was 350 infections per 100,000 population; in 2008, it was 216 per 100,000.
  • The rate of chlamydia in Ottawa has been higher than the average of Ontario-less-Ottawa (246 per 100,000 in 2017) since 2015. However, the rate in Ottawa is not the highest in the province. [2]
  • Ottawa youth 15-29 years of are at highest risk. [1] The highest rate is in females aged 15-24 years (2,080 per 100,000 population). [2]
  • Condomless sex is the most common risk factor among individuals in Ottawa diagnosed with chlamydia.
Gonorrhea
  • Gonorrhea is the second most frequently reported sexually transmitted infection in Ottawa, after chlamydia. Although incidence has been slowly increasing since the early 1990s, there was a large (68%) increase in reported cases between 2016 and 2017. [1] Gonorrhea incidence in 2017 was 65 infections per 100,000 population; in 2008, it was 23 per 100,000.
  • The rate of gonorrhea in Ottawa, which had previously been lower than the average of Ontario-less-Ottawa, is now higher (65 per 100,000 vs. 55 per 100,000). However, the rate in Ottawa is not the highest in the province. [2]
  • Ottawa youth 15-29 years of age and gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with other men are at higher risk.  The highest age/sex-specific rate is in males aged 20-34 years (250 per 100,000 population). The highest proportion of cases (41%) is in gay, bisexual or other men who have sex with men (MSM). However, an increasing number of cases are diagnosed also among men who do not identify as MSM and among women. [1]
  • Condomless sex is the most common risk factor among individuals in Ottawa diagnosed with gonorrhea.
Infectious Syphilis
  • Infectious syphilis is the third most frequently reported sexually transmitted infection in Ottawa, after chlamydia and gonorrhea. Prior to 2002, less than one case of infectious syphilis per 100,000 population was reported each year in Ottawa. However, a resurgence that began in 2002 reached a high of 14 cases of infectious syphilis per 100,000 in 2016. [1]  Infectious syphilis incidence in 2017 was 11 infections per 100,000.
  • The rate in Ottawa is now the same as the average of Ontario-less-Ottawa, although for several years (2012 – 2016) it was higher. [2]
  • Ninety-five per cent of Ottawa cases were male, most of whom are gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (MSM). [1]
  • Anonymous sex and condomless sex are the most common risk factors among individuals in Ottawa diagnosed with infectious syphilis.
  • Congenital syphilis, which can occur if a woman is infected during pregnancy, has not been reported in Ottawa since 1992. [1]
Hepatitis C
  • In 2017, 27 hepatitis C infections per 100,000 population were reported in Ottawa, down from a record high of 96 infections per 100,000 in 1998. The rate of hepatitis C has been consistently lower in Ottawa than the average of Ontario-less-Ottawa. [1,2]
  • Injection drug use is the top risk factor among people diagnosed with hepatitis C.  In 2017, 47% of individuals diagnosed with hepatitis C reported injecting or inhaling drugs at some point in their lifetime. [1]
Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)
  • Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) incidence in Ottawa was 6 infections per 100,000 population in 2017. Acquired acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) incidence was 1 case per 100,000. There has not been much change in the incidence rate of HIV in the last 5 years. [1]
  • The incidence rate of HIV in Ottawa is the same as the average of Ontario-less-Ottawa.  The rate of AIDS was higher in Ottawa than the average of Ontario-less-Ottawa.  However, the rate in Ottawa is not the highest in the province. [2]
  • The highest rate of HIV in Ottawa in 2017 was in males aged 30-34 years (28 per 100,000) and the highest numbers of cases were in those from, or with a sexual partner from, a country where HIV is common (56%); and in gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (MSM) (43%).  Thirteen percent of cases were among people who use drugs. [1]  The total percent of reported risk factors sums to greater than 100% because an individual may report more than one risk factor.
  • Early diagnosis and treatment of HIV (before onset of AIDS) is associated with fewer complications and better odds of survival. Infections reported in 2017 among MSM were more likely to be recent infections (63% of infections among MSM were recent), and infections in individuals from a country where HIV is common where more likely to be older infections (81% of infections are older). [9] Among those with an older infection, 41% were diagnosed and reported only after onset of symptoms indicative of chronic infection or AIDS.
Hepatitis B
  • Acute hepatitis B incidence in 2017 was 0.2 infections per 100,000 population, which was the same in 2013 and lower than the average of Ontario-less-Ottawa. [1,2] The rate of acute hepatitis B in Ottawa has been less than 0.5 infections per 100,000 population for the last 10 years [1]
  • Chronic hepatitis B incidence in 2017 was 15 infections per 100,000 population.  The rate of chronic hepatitis B has been stable for the last 5 years. [1]
  • Individuals at highest risk for hepatitis B are immigrants to Canada from countries where hepatitis B is common. More than half of people diagnosed with acute and chronic hepatitis B during 2008 to 2017 were born outside Canada. [1]
Sexual Behaviour and Risk Factors for Sexually Transmitted Infections

Sexual health is an important aspect of one’s overall health.  Sexual health, and the ability to have safe and satisfying sexual experiences, is influenced by a number of factors, including sexual behaviours.  Some sexual behaviours are associated with sexually transmitted infections, which are most prevalent in youth 15 to 29 years of age. 

Sexual Behaviour in the General Population

Youth Sexual Activity 

  • Approximately two-thirds (68%) of Ottawa residents aged 15 to 29 years reported ever having vaginal or anal sex, which was similar to the average of Ontario-less-Ottawa (62%) (Figure 8). [10]
  • The proportion of 15 to 29 year olds reporting ever having sex increased with age:  35% of 15 to 19 year-olds, 80% of 20 to 24 year-olds, and 89% of 25 to 29 year-olds (Figure 8).
Figure 8. Percentage of Ottawa youth (15 to 29 years) who reported ever having sex, by age group, in 2015/16

Horizontal bar chart of the percentage of Ottawa residents between 15 and 29 years of age who reported ever having sex, by age group, as of 2015/16 

Data Source and Notes for Figure 8

Canadian Community Health Survey 2015/16. Ontario Share File. Statistics Canada.

  • The Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS) is an annual national population health survey conducted by Statistics Canada.
  • Error bars represent 95% confidence intervals.
Data Table for Figure 8
Table 10. Percentage of Ottawa youth (15 to 29 years) who reported ever having sex, by age group, 2015/16
Geographic Region, Age Group% Reported Ever Having Sex95% Confidence Intervals
Ottawa, 15 to 29 years 68.1 61.3 - 74.3
Ontario-less-Ottawa, 15 to 29 years 61.5 59.2 - 63.8
Ottawa, 15 to 19 years 35.5 23.1 - 50.2
Ottawa, 20 to 24 years 79.9 68.8 - 87.7
Ottawa, 25 to 29 years 88.8 72.7 - 96

Number of Partners

  • Approximately six of every ten (61%) Ottawa youth aged 15 to 29 years who had sex in the past 12 months reported having one sexual partner (Figure 9), which was the same in Ontario-less-Ottawa. [10]
  • Approximately one-third (31%) of Ottawa youth aged 15 to 29 years who had sex in the past 12 months reported having two or more sexual partners (Figure 9), which was similar to the average of Ontario-less-Ottawa (28%).

Condom Use

  • Almost half (49%) of Ottawa residents aged 15 to 29 years who had sex involving a male in the past 12 months reported using a condom the last time they had sex (Figure 9), which was similar to the average of Ontario-less-Ottawa (54%). [10]

 Testing for Sexually Transmitted Infections

  • More than half (52%) of Ottawa youth aged 15 to 29 years who had sex in the past 12 months reported ever getting tested for sexually transmitted infections (not including HIV) (Figure 9), which was highter than the average of Ontario-less-Ottawa (36%). Of those who were ever tested, 46% reported being tested in the past year. [10]
  • More than a third (37%) of Ottawa youth aged 15 to 29 years who had sex in the past 12 months reported ever getting tested for HIV, which was highter than the average of Ontario-less-Ottawa (26%). Of those ever getting tested, 54% reported being tested in the past year. 

Figure 9. Sexual behaviours among 15 to 29 year-olds in Ottawa who have had sex, 2015/16

 Horizontal bar chart of sexual behaviours among 15 to 29 year-olds who have had sex, Ottawa, 2015/16

Data Source and Notes for Figure 9

Canadian Community Health Survey 2015/16. Ontario Share File. Statistics Canada.

  • The Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS) is an annual national population health survey conducted by Statistics Canada.
  • STIs include any sexually transmitted infection with the exception of HIV.
  • Error bars represent 95% confidence intervals.
Data Table for Figure 9
Table 11. Sexual behaviours among 15 to 29 year-olds who have had sex, Ottawa, 2015/16
Behaviour% of  Youth (15 to 29 Years) Reporting Behaviour95% Confidence Intervals
Used condom last time having sex 48.5 37.5 - 59.6
One partner in last 12 months 61.2 51.4 - 70.1
Two or more partners in last 12 months 31.1 23.3 - 40.3
Ever tested for STIs 52 40 - 63.7
Tested for STIs in the last year 45.5 33.5 - 58.2
Ever tested for HIV 37.4 27.1 - 49
Tested for HIV in the last year 54.2 40.8 - 67
Sexual Behaviour among those Diagnosed with a Sexually Transmitted Infection
  • Condomless sex is the most common risk factor among individuals in Ottawa diagnosed with infections that are transmitted sexually, followed by having a new sexual partner in the two months prior to diagnosis and having more than one partner in the six months prior to diagnosis (Table 12).
Table 12. Risk factors for reported sexually transmitted infections, Ottawa, 2017

 Risk Factor

% of chlamydia cases reporting risk factor

% of gonorrhea cases reporting risk factor

% of infectious syphilis cases reporting risk factor

Condomless sex

73%

77%

47%

Anonymous partner

3% 15% 52%

New sexual partner in 2 months before diagnosis

31%

45%

24%

More than one partner in the 6 months before diagnosis

20%

28%

40%

 Data Source and Notes for Table 12

Ministry of Health and Long-term Care (MOHLTC), integrated Public Health Information System (iPHIS), extracted by Ottawa Public Health, June 11, 2018.

  • The total percent of reported risk factors sums to greater than 100% because an individual may report more than one risk factor.

Vaccine Preventable Diseases and Immunization

Vaccine-preventable diseases (e.g., measles, mumps, rubella, diphtheria, tetanus, polio) have historically been a key focus of public health programs in Ottawa. In general, reports of vaccine-preventable diseases to OPH have been low (Figure 10) because of effective immunization programs and high immunization coverage.

Overall Trends
  • The most common reportable vaccine-preventable diseases in 2017 were chickenpox (74 cases) and pneumococcal disease (73 cases), a common cause of pneumonia. [1]
  • The rates chickenpox and pneumococcal disease have not changed over the past 5 years.  The rate of pneumococcal disease is not different from Ontario-less-Ottawa, but provincial data for chickenpox are not available for comparison. [2]

Figure 10. Number of cases of vaccine preventable diseases, Ottawa, 2017

Bar chart of the number of cases of vaccine preventable diseases reported to Ottawa Public Health in 2017

Data Source and Notes for Figure 10

Ministry of Health and Long-term Care (MOHLTC), integrated Public Health Information System (iPHIS), extracted by Ottawa Public Health, September 10, 2018.

  • iPHIS is a dynamic reporting system which allows for on-going updates to previously entered data. As such, data extracted from iPHIS provides a snapshot of information at the time of data extraction, and can vary from previous and subsequent data extractions.
  • Reportable infectious diseases are generally underreported due to several factors, which may include low morbidity and incentive for testing; no health care sought; clinical rather than laboratory-based diagnoses; and the inability to identify an aetiological agent from a laboratory specimen.
  • The following diseases are reported as a sum of confirmed and probable cases: mumps and pertussis.
  • All cases are assigned to a date based on episode date (the earliest of symptom onset, laboratory testing, and reporting).
  • There is a lag in reporting associated with most reportable infectious diseases.
Data Table for Figure 10
Table 13. Number of cases of vaccine preventable diseases, Ottawa, 2017

Vaccine Preventable Disease

Count

Chickenpox

74

Pneumococcal disease

73

Pertussis (confirmed & probable)

25

Mumps (confirmed & probable)

4

Diphtheria

0

Haemophilus influenzae type b, Invasive

0

Measles

0

Acute Flaccid Paralysis

0

Polio

0

Rubella

0

Rubella, Congenital Syndrome

0

Smallpox

0

Tetanus

0

 
Pertussis (Whooping Cough) 

Pertussis, also known as whooping cough, is a highly contagious infection. Infants under 12 months of age are most at risk of severe disease and death.

  • A total of 25 pertussis infections (confirmed and probable) were reported to OPH in 2017 (Figure 10). [1]
  • The incidence of pertussis has increased over the last 5 years (from 11 cases in 2013 to 25 cases in 2017).
  • The rate of pertussis in Ottawa in 2017 was lower than the average of Ontario-less-Ottawa (2.5 vs. 3.7/100,000).
Mumps 

Enhanced vigilance against mumps and up-to-date immunization among post-secondary students and those 18 to 30 years of age is recommended.

  • An increase in mumps cases has been noted across Ontario in recent years, particularly in 24-35 year-olds. [2,11]
  • In 2017, Ottawa had a lower rate of mumps (0.4 per 100,000 population) than Ontario-less-Ottawa (1.9 per 100,000 population). The majority of cases were 24 to 35 years of age. 
Immunization

Immunization is a public health initiative to prevent illness, disability and death from vaccine preventable diseases.  High immunization coverage is essential for the effective prevention and control of vaccine preventable diseases.  

Immunizations are provided as part of publically funded health care in Ontario.

Childhood Immunization

In Ottawa, every child’s immunization record is assessed for compliance to the Immunization of School Pupils Act (ISPA) each year, and parents are notified if their child(ren) do not have required immunizations or valid exemptions.

In addition to assessment for ISPA compliance, 7, 12, 13, and 17 year-olds are assessed for up-to-date immunization coverage, which is the percent who have received the recommended number of doses of a vaccine or have evidence of immunity at a given point in time (Table 14Table 15, Table 16). Many children who are not up-to-date have received some, but not all, recommended doses in a vaccine series. The National Immunization Strategy's vaccination coverage goals, updated in 2017, set coverage targets based on international standards and best practices. [12]

In Ottawa in the 2016-17 school year, the coverage rate among 7 year-old students surpassed the national goal of 95% coverage for rubella and meningococcal C conjugate, is approaching the goal for measles and mumps, and was below the goal for diphtheria, tetanus, polio, pertussis, Haemophilus influenzae type b and pneumococcal disease (Table 14). [13] These coverage estimates are limited to immunizations reported to public health.

Table 14. Immunization coverage estimates (%) for Ottawa students 7 years of age, by school year, and national coverage goals, by vaccine
Vaccine2013-142014-152015-162016-17National Goal
Measles 92.1 91.9 93.6 94.5 95
Mumps 91.8 91.6 93.5 94.4 95
Rubella 98.5 97.8 97.3 98.4 95
Diphtheria 81.5 83.4 87.1 87.3 95
Tetanus 81.5 83.4 87.1 87.3 95
Polio 81.8 83.7 87.6 87.8 95
Pertussis 81.2 83.2 87.1 87.3 95
Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib)* 86.9 84.7 83.2 84.3 95
Pneumococcal* 79.6 79.7 81.1 83.7 95
Meningococcal C conjugate (MCC) 82.1 85 88.5 96.9 95
Varicella 32.1 45.8 54.3 57.9 -

 

Data Sources and Notes for Table 14

Ontario Agency for Health Protection and Promotion (Public Health Ontario). Immunization coverage report for school pupils: 2013-14, 2014-15 and 2015-16 school years. Toronto, ON: Queen’s Printer for Ontario; 2017.

Ontario Agency for Health Protection and Promotion (Public Health Ontario). Immunization coverage report for school pupils in Ontario: 2016-17 school year. Toronto, ON: Queen’s Printer for Ontario; 2018.

*Not an ISPA-designated disease. Coverage may be underestimated.

†Added as an ISPA-designated disease in 2014, applicable to children born in 2010 or later; not applicable to birth cohorts presented.

 

Table 15. Immunization coverage estimates (%) for Ottawa students 17 years of age, by school year, and national coverage goals, by vaccine
Vaccine2013-142014-152015-162016-17National Goal
Measles 97.6 95.4 96.2 97.2 95
Mumps 95.8 93.8 95.9 97 95
Rubella 99 97.2 98.1 98.5 95
Diphtheria 71.3 58.9 77.7 77.5 90
Tetanus 71.3 59 77.8 77.5 90
Polio 93.8 91.9 94.3 94.8 95
Pertussis 57 50.4 70.3 71.8 90

 

Data Sources and Notes for Table 15

Ontario Agency for Health Protection and Promotion (Public Health Ontario). Immunization coverage report for school pupils: 2013-14, 2014-15 and 2015-16 school years. Toronto, ON: Queen’s Printer for Ontario; 2017.

Ontario Agency for Health Protection and Promotion (Public Health Ontario). Immunization coverage report for school pupils in Ontario: 2016-17 school year. Toronto, ON: Queen’s Printer for Ontario; 2018.

 

Table 16. Immunization coverage estimates (%) for school-based immunization programs for Ottawa students 12 and 13 years of age, by school year, and national coverage goals, by vaccine
Vaccine2013-142014-152015-162016-17National Goal
Hepatitis B 72.7 70.1 73.8 74.3 90
MCV4 77.2 82 79.6 86 90
HPV (13yr females) 57.5 60.1 64.7 65 90
HPV (12yr)* - - - 59.9  

 

Data Source and Notes for Table 16
 

Ontario Agency for Health Protection and Promotion (Public Health Ontario). Immunization coverage report for school pupils: 2013-14, 2014-15 and 2015-16 school years. Toronto, ON: Queen’s Printer for Ontario; 2017.

Ontario Agency for Health Protection and Promotion (Public Health Ontario). Immunization coverage report for school pupils in Ontario: 2016-17 school year. Toronto, ON: Queen’s Printer for Ontario; 2018.

* In the 2016-17 school year, the HPV immunization program expanded to include boys as well as girls, and was delivered in grade 7 instead of grade 8.

Influenza Immunization

Each fall, the Universal Influenza Immunization Program (UIIP) makes influenza immunization available to all residents. Ottawa residents can receive a seasonal influenza immunization from their health care provider, a pharmacist, or at an Ottawa Public Health clinic. While the UIIP offers immunization to all Ontarians, there are groups for which influenza immunization is prioritized, who are at high risk of complications or who those who are capable to transmitting influenza to those at high risk for complications. These include, for example, children under five years of age, older adults over 65 years of age, those with chronic conditions and health care workers. [14] There are limited immunization data on these populations. 

  • In 2015/16, 38% of Ottawa residents aged 12 years and older reported receiving an influenza immunization in the past year. [10]
  • Immunization rates are higher among older adults. During the 2017-18 influenza season, one-third (34%) of residents aged 18 to 64 years reported receiving an influenza immunization while three-quarters (78%) of residents 65 years of age and older received an influenza immunization, which was similar to previous influenza seasons for both age groups (Figure 11).  [3]
Figure 11. Percentage of Ottawa adults reporting influenza immunization by age group and influenza season, 2013/14 to 2017/18

Line chart of the percentage of Ottawa adults reporting influenza immunization by age group and influenza season from 2013/14 to 2017/18

Data Source and Notes for Figure 11

Ottawa Public Health.  Rapid Risk Factor Surveillance System, 2013-2018.

  • The Rapid Risk Factor Surveillance System (RRFSS) is an ongoing random-digit dialed telephone (landline and cell) population health survey of Ottawa adults aged 18 years and older. 
  • Error bars represent 95% confidence intervals
Data Table for Figure 11

Table 17. Percentage of Ottawa adults reporting influenza immunization by age group and influenza season, 2013/14- 2017/18
Influenza SeasonAge 18 to 64 Years (%)

Age 18 to 64 Years

(95% Confidence Intervals)

Age 65+ Years (%)Age 65+ Years (95% Confidence Intervals)
2013/14 45.8 38.8-52.8 86 78.5-93.4
2014/15 38.6 32.2-45.1 79.9 72.8-87.0
2015/16 36.6 30.0-43.1 79.6 71.7-87.6
2016/17 43.7 36.9-50.4 83.7 75.7-91.7
2017/18 33.5 27.0-40.0 77.9 70.0-85.8

Vector-borne Diseases and Risk Factors

Vector-borne diseases in people are diseases transmitted by an insect or other living thing that carries a pathogen that can infect a person who comes into contact with the vector.  Examples include Lyme disease, the bacterial agent of which is carried by a tick, and West Nile virus, which is carried by a mosquito.

Overall Trends
  • Lyme disease and West Nile virus infection are the only two reportable vector-borne diseases that can be acquired locally for which cases were reported in 2017 (Figure 12).  There has been significant Lyme and West Nile activity in Ottawa in recent years. [1]
  • Malaria has been reported among Ottawa residents, but it is not acquired locally.  Cases of malaria are always travel-related.  The number of malaria cases reported has not changed significantly over the past five years.
  • No cases of the other reportable vector-borne diseases were reported in Ottawa in 2017:  anthrax, brucellosis, hantavirus pulmonary syndrome, plague, Q fever, rabies, and tularemia.  

Figure 12. Number of cases of vector-borne and other zoonotic infections, Ottawa, 2017

Horizontal bar chart of the number of cases of vector-borne and other zoonotic infections reported by Ottawa residents in 2017

Data Source and Notes for Figure 12

Ministry of Health and Long-term Care (MOHLTC), integrated Public Health Information System (iPHIS), extracted by Ottawa Public Health, 2018. 

  • iPHIS is a dynamic reporting system which allows for on-going updates to previously entered data. As such, data extracted from iPHIS provides a snapshot of information at the time of data extraction, and can vary from previous and subsequent data extractions.
  • Reportable communicable diseases are generally underreported due to several factors, which may include low morbidity and incentive for testing; no health care sought; clinical rather than laboratory-based diagnoses; and inability to identify identify an aetiological agent from a laboratory specimen.
  • The following diseases are reported as a sum of confirmed and probable cases: brucellosis, Lyme disease, and West Nile Virus.
  • All cases are assigned to a date based on episode date (the earliest of symptom onset, laboratory testing, and reporting). 
  • There is a lag in reporting associated with most reportable communicable diseases.
 Data Table for Figure 12
Table 17. Number of cases of vector-borne and other zoonotic infections reported by Ottawa residents in 2017
Vector-borne and other zoonotic infectionsNumber of Cases
Anthrax 0
Brucellosis, Confirmed and Probable Cases 0
Echinococcus multilocularis infection 0
Hantavirus 0
Plague 0
Q Fever 0
Rabies 0
Tularemia 0
West Nile Virus, Confirmed and Probable Cases 20
Malaria 32
Lyme Disease, Confirmed and Probable Cases 189

Lyme Disease
  • In 2017, a record number of Lyme disease cases were reported to OPH (190 cases), compared with 49 cases reported in 2013. [1] Of the 2017 cases, 38% reported exposure within Ottawa, or within Ottawa and outside Ottawa, while 55% reported only exposure outside of Ottawa.
  • Compared with other health units in Northeastern Ontario with established Lyme disease risk areas, the rate in Ottawa is lower (56/100,000 vs. 19/100,000). [2,15]
  • Most Lyme cases are reported to Ottawa Public Health (OPH) during months without snow cover, when ticks are most active and people spend more time in outdoor settings. [1]
  • The City of Ottawa is an established Lyme disease risk area. [15]  Tick surveillance work conducted by OPH estimates that 20% or more of ticks in the area are infected with the disease causing bacterium, Borrelia burgdorferi
  • In 2017, 89% of Ottawa adults were aware of Lyme disease, 81% of those aware knew that people can get Lyme from tick, and 62% of these individuals reported performing tick checks or taking steps to protect themselves from tick bites after spending time outdoors. [3]

West Nile Virus Illness

  • In 2017, 20 cases of WNV infection were reported among Ottawa residents, which is the most ever reported in Ottawa in a single year. [1] The first case of WNV infection was reported in Ottawa in 2003; 4 cases were reported that year.
  • The incidence of WNV illness in Ottawa in 2017 was higher than the average of Ontario-less-Ottawa (2 cases per 100,000 vs. 1 case per 100,000). [2]

Rabies

  • The most recent case of rabies acquired in Ontario was in 1967. [16]
  • The distribution of rabies post-exposure prophylaxis (RPEP) for the prevention and treatment of rabies in humans is a resource-intensive OPH program. In 2017, OPH, working alongside local health care providers, coordinated the distribution of RPEP dose to 115 individuals with suspected rabies exposure. [1]

Infectious Diseases Reports

Epidemiology of Reportable Communicable Diseases, Ottawa, 2016
Report: Epidemiology of Reportable Communicable Diseases, Ottawa [PDF 1.0 MB]
Enteric Disease in Ottawa Report, 2011

To better inform the planning and implementation of strategies that address enteric illnesses in Ottawa, Ottawa Public Health compiled the Enteric Disease in Ottawa, 2011 report, which provides data from 2010 about 15 reportable enteric diseases. The report includes the number of cases, incidence by age, sex and time of year, five-year averages and comparison with the rest of Ontario.

Enteric Disease in Ottawa Report [PDF 6.52 MB]

Enteric Disease: Knowledge to Action Report [PDF 886 KB]

Sexually Transmitted Infections and Sexual Health in Ottawa, 2011

The Sexually Transmitted Infections and Sexual Health in Ottawa 2011 report provides an overview of 12 types of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in Ottawa, the number of cases, incidence rates by age and sex, 10-year averages, comparisons to the rest of Ontario, and a neighbourhood analysis of Chlamydia. The Sexually Transmitted Infections and Sexual Health in Ottawa 2011: Knowledge to Action Report outlines OPH's role in the prevention and control of STIs and promotion healthy sexuality among Ottawa's youth and adult population. 

Sexually Transmitted Infections and Sexual Health in Ottawa report [PDF 1.2 MB] 

Sexually Transmitted Infections and Sexual Health in Ottawa 2011: Knowledge to Action Report [PDF 13.1 MB]

 Tuberculosis in Ottawa, 2011

The Tuberculosis in Ottawa 2011 report describes the state of tuberculosis (TB) in Ottawa in 2010 compared with the past and describes disease outcomes, clinical management and risk to the population. Tuberculosis in Ottawa 2011: Knowledge to Action Report outlines OPH's role in the detection, investigation, treatment and prevention of TB. 

Tuberculosis in Ottawa 2011 report [PDF 928 KB]

Tuberculosis in Ottawa 2011: Knowledge to Action Report [PDF12.8 MB]

References

References

  1. Ministry of Health and Long-term Care (MOHLTC), integrated Public Health Information System (iPHIS), extracted by Ottawa Public Health, June 6, 2018
  2. Public Health Ontario. Query: Ottawa Public Health Unit: Historical Comparisons. Toronto, ON: Ontario Agency for Health Protection and Promotion; June 6, 2018.
  3. Ottawa Public Health. Rapid Risk Factor Surveillance System, 2017
  4. Teatero, S., McGeer, A., Tyrrell, G.J., Hoang, L., Smadi, H., Domingo, M-C., Levett, P.N., Finkelstein, M., Dewar, K., Plevneshi, A., Athey, T.B.T., Gubbay, J.B., Mulvey, M.R., Martin, I., Demczuk, W., and N. Fittipaldi. Canada-Wide Epidemic of emm74 Group A Streptococcus Invasive Disease, Open Forum Infectious Diseases, Volume 5, Issue 5, 1 May 2018. https://doi.org/10.1093/ofid/ofy085
  5. World Health Organization. Global tuberculosis 2018. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2018.
  6. Vachon, J., V. Gallant, and W. Siu. Tuberculosis in Canada, 2016. Canada Communicable Disease Report 44, no. 3/4 (2018): 75-81
  7. Aho, J., Lacroix, C., Bazargani, M., Milot, DM., Sylvestre, JL. Pucella, E., et al. Tuberculosis among substance users and homeless people in Montreal, Canada.  Canada Communicable Disease Report 43, no. 3/4 (2018): 72-6.
  8. Canadian Public Health Association. Factors Impacting Vulnerability to HIV and Other STBBIs
  9. Friedman, DS, O’Byrne P, Roy, M.  Comparing those diagnosed early versus late in their HIV infection: implications for public health.  International Journal of STD & AIDS 28, no. 7 (2017): 693-701.
  10. Ottawa Public Health. Canadian Community Health Survey 2015/16. Ontario Share File. Statistics Canada. 
  11. Public Health Ontario. Mumps. 2018. https://www.publichealthontario.ca/en/BrowseByTopic/InfectiousDiseases/Pages/IDLandingPages/Mumps.aspx
  12. Government of Canada. Vaccination Coverage Goals and Vaccine Preventable Disease Reduction Targets by 2025.  https://www.canada.ca/en/public-health/services/immunization-vaccine-priorities/national-immunization-strategy/vaccination-coverage-goals-vaccine-preventable-diseases-reduction-targets-2025.html#1.0. Last modified 2018-07-23

  13. Ontario Agency for Health Protection and Promotion (Public Health Ontario). Immunization coverage report for school pupils in Ontario: 2016-17 school year. Toronto, ON: Queen’s Printer for Ontario; 2018.

  14. Ontario Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care. Universal Influenza Immunization Program (UIIP). http://www.health.gov.on.ca/en/pro/programs/publichealth/flu/uiip/default.aspx Last modified 2018-09-19
  15. Public Health Ontario. Map of Lyme Disease Risk Areas in Ontario. 2018. http://www.publichealthontario.ca/en/eRepository/Lyme_disease_risk_areas_map.pdf
  16. Public Health Ontario.  September 2012 Monthly Infectious Disease Surveillance Report.  https://www.publichealthontario.ca/en/DataAndAnalytics/Documents/2012_September_PHO_Monthly_Report.pdf

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