Morbidity, Mortality, and Quality of Life

Morbidity and Mortality Data

Leading Causes of Emergency Department Visits, Hospitalizations and Death Overall and by Sex

In Ottawa:

  • The leading cause of emergency department (ED) visits was injuries or other external factors (Table 1) for the overall population, as well as for females (Table 2) and males (Table 3) in 2017.
  • After obstetrical (i.e., childbirth) hospitalizations, mental and behavioural disorders were the leading cause of hospitalizations in 2017 (Table 1).
    • The leading cause of hospitalizations for females was obstetrical (childbirth), followed by mental and behavioural disorders (Table 2).
    • The leading cause of hospitalizations for males was diseases of the circulatory system, followed by mental and behaviour disorders (Table 3).
  • In 2012, ischemic heart disease (IHD) was the leading cause of death, followed by dementia and Alzheimer’s disease (Table 1).
    • IHD was the most common cause of death for males in 2012 (Table 3) and dementia and Alzheimer’s surpassed IHD to become the leading cause of death for females in 2012 (Table 2).
Table 1. Leading causes (number) of emergency department (ED) visits and hospitalizations in 2017 and death in 2012 in Ottawa

Rank

ED Visits in 2017 (Count)

Hospitalizations in 2017 (Count)

Deaths in 2012 (Count)

1

Injury/external (81,111)

Obstetrical (9,855)

Ischemic heart disease (692)

2

Respiratory (27,959)

Mental (7,144)

Dementia & Alzheimer's (543)

3

Digestive (20,724)

Circulatory (7,094)

Lung cancer (390)

4

Musculoskeletal (20,585)

Digestive (6,424)

Cerebrovascular (296)

5

Mental (17,724)

Injury/external (5,256)

Colorectal cancer (231)

6

Genitourinary (17,302)

Respiratory (4,848)

Lower respiratory (219)

7

Infectious (15,899)

Musculoskeletal (4,846)

Cancer-lymph, blood (179)

8

Circulatory (13,183)

Neoplasms (3,947)

Diabetes (166)

9

Skin (12,069)

Genitourinary (3,671)

Falls (132)

10

Nervous (6,725)

Infections (1,878)

Breast cancer (128)

Table 2. Leading causes (number) of emergency department (ED) visits and hospitalizations in 2017 and death in 2012 among Ottawa females

Rank

ED visits in 2017 (Count)

Hospitalizations in 2017 (Count)

Deaths in 2012 (Count)

1

Injury/external (38,551)

Obstetrical (9,810)

Dementia & Alzheimer's (374)

2

Respiratory (14,246)

Mental (3,632)

Ischemic Heart Disease (319)

3

Musculoskeletal (11,183)

Digestive (3,270)

Lung cancer (194)

4

Digestive (10,997)

Circulatory (2,898)

Cerebrovascular (186)

5

Genitourinary (10,943)

Injury/external (2,770)

Breast cancer (127)

6

Mental (8,251)

Musculoskeletal (2,762)

Colorectal cancer (113)

7

Infections (8,479)

Respiratory (2,395)

Lower respiratory (109)

8

Circulatory (6,277)

Neoplasms (2,058)

Diabetes (81)

9

Skin (5,619)

Genitourinary (2,013)

Cancer-lymph, blood (76)

10

Obstetrical (4,624)

Metabolic (991)

Flu/pneumonia (76)

Table 3. Leading causes (number) of emergency department (ED) visits and hospitalizations in 2017 and death in 2012 among Ottawa males

Rank

ED visits in 2017 (Count)

Hospitalizations in 2017 (Count)

Deaths in 2012 (Count)

1

Injury/external (42,549)

Circulatory (4,196)

Ischemic Heart Disease (373)

2

Respiratory (13,713)

Mental (3,370)

Lung cancer (196)

3

Digestive (9,725)

Digestive (3,153)

Dementia & Alzheimer's (169)

4

Musculoskeletal (9,402)

Injury/external (2,483)

Colorectal cancer (118)

5

Mental (8,597)

Respiratory (2,453)

Cerebrovascular (110)

6

Infections (7,240)

Musculoskeletal (2,084)

Cancer-lymph, blood (110)

7

Circulatory (6,695)

Neoplasms (1,889)

Diabetes (85)

8

Genitourinary (6,354)

Genitourinary (1,658)

Prostate cancer (78)

9

Skin (6,237)

Infections (962)

Falls (58)

10

Ear (3,925)

Metabolic (751)

Urinary (56)

 Data Source and Notes for Table 1, Table 2 and Table 3

Unscheduled emergency department visits, National Ambulatory Care Reporting System (2017). Ontario Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care, IntelliHealth Ontario. Extracted October 10, 2018.

  • ED visits without a diagnosis (70,748 visits labelled as ‘signs and symptoms’ in the ICD chapter descriptions) and those that do not represent conditions (11,602 visits labeled as ‘health factors’ in the ICD chapter descriptions) have been excluded from the ranking
  • ED visits are presented by ICD-10 chapter
  • ED visits are based on the residence (Ottawa) of the patient and not the hospital that was visited. ED visits for Ottawa residents out of Ontario are not included.

Hospitalizations (inpatient discharges), Discharge Abstract Database (2017). Ontario Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care IntelliHealth Ontario. Extracted October 10, 2018.

  • Hospitalizations without a diagnosis (2,940 hospitalizations labeled as ‘signs and symptoms’ in the ICD chapter descriptions) and those that do not represent conditions (3,178 hospitalizations labelled as ‘health factors’ in the ICD chapter descriptions) have been excluded from the ranking
  • Hospitalizations are presented by ICD-10 chapter
  • Hospitalizaitons are based on the residence (Ottawa) of the patient and not the hospital location. Hospitalizations for Ottawa residents out of Ontario are not included.

Adult Mental Health or Addictions Hospitalization (admissions), Ontario Mental Health Reporting System (2017). Ontario Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care IntelliHealth Ontario. Extracted October 11, 2018.

  • Admissions to adult mental health beds are included in hospitalizations for mental and behavioural disorders (any DSM-IV diagnosis code).

Ottawa Deaths, Ontario Mortality Data (2000-2012). Ontario Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care IntelliHealth Ontario.

  • The leading causes of death are reported by the Association of Public Health Epidemiologist's modifications to Becker’s leading cause of death groupings. [1] This list provides more specific causes of death (e.g. lunch cancer) rather than broad groupings (e.g. all cancers) and may differ from lists published by other agencies.
  • Death data are collected from death certificates completed by physicians. The underlying cause of death is the disease or injury which initiated the chain of events leading to death.
  • Deaths represent the residence (Ottawa) of the deceased and not where the death occurred; deaths occurring outside Ontario are not included.

ICD-10 Chapter Descriptions

ICD-10 Chapter

ICD-10 Codes

Description

Examples of conditions

Blood/immune

D50-D59

Diseases of blood and blood forming organs and disorders involving the immune mechanism

Anaemias

Circulatory

I00-I99

Diseases of the circulatory system

Hypertensive diseases, ischemic heart disease, pulmonary heart disease, conduction disorders and cardiac arrhythmias

Congenital

Q00-Q99

Congenital malformations, deformations and chromosomal anomalies

 

Digestive

K00-K99

Diseases of the digestive system

Peptic ulcer, hernia, Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis, intestinal obstruction, alcoholic liver disease, disease of the pancreas

Ear

H60-H99

Diseases of the ear and mastoid process

 

Eye

H00-H59

Diseases of the eye and adnexa

Cataract

Genitourinary

N00-N99

Diseases of the genitourinary system

Renal failure, hyperplasia of prostate, menstrual, menopausal and other female genital conditions

Health factors

Z00-Z99

Factors influencing health status and contacts with health services

Medical observation and evaluation

Infections

A00-B99

Certain infectious and parasitic diseases

Tuberculosis, diarrhea and gastroenteritis of infectious origin, septiceamia

Injury

S00-T99

Injury, poisoning and other consequences of external casuse

Injury, burns and corrosions, poisonings, complications of surgical and medical care

Mental

F00-F99

Mental and behavioural disorders

Dementia, mood affective disorders, mental and behavioural disorders due to alcohol or other psychoactive substances

Metabolic

E00-E99

Endocrine, nutritional and metabolic diseases

Diabetes

Musculoskeletal

M00-M99

Diseases of the musculoskeletal system and connective tissue

Back problems, arthrosis of knee or hip, soft tissue disorders

Neoplasms

C00-D49

Cancer

Lung cancer, breast cancer, prostate cancer

Nervous

G00-G99

Diseases of the nervous system

Alzheimer’s disease, multiple sclerosis, epilepsy

Obstetrical

O00-O99

Pregnancy, childbirth and the puerperium

Childbirth, medical abortion, complications of pregnancy

Perinatal

P00-P99

Certain conditions originating in the perinatal period

Conditions to the fetus or newborn such as slow fetal growth, high or low birth weight, birth trauma, jaundice, neonatal conditions, infections

Respiratory

J00-J99

Disease of the respiratory system

Acute upper respiratory infections, influenza, pneumonia, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, asthma

Signs/symptoms

R00-R99

Symptoms, signs and abnormal clinical and laboratory findings, not elsewhere classified

Pain in throat and chest, abdominal and pelvic pain

Skin

L00-L99

Diseases of skin and subcutaneous tissue

Infections of the skin and subcutaneous tissue, dermatitis, eczema

Leading Causes of Emergency Department Visits by Year and Age

In Ottawa:

  • In 2017, residents made 338,353 visits to the emergency department (ED). [2]
  • The top five causes of ED visits have not changed from 2013 to 2017, with the exception of mental and behavioural disorders surpassing genitourinary conditions in 2017 (Table 4)

  • About one quarter (24%) of all ED visits are due to injuries or other external causes. [2]
  • By age, the leading causes of ED visits vary. In 2017, about two in five (40%) ED visits by those aged 5 to 19 years were due to injuries and other external causes; one quarter (24%) of ED visits by those aged 20 to 44 years were due to injuries and other external causes (Table 5).
Table 4. Leading causes of emergency department visits in Ottawa and number of visits by ICD-10 chapter, 2013 to 2017

Rank

2013

2014

2015

2016

2017

1

Injury/external (73,004)

Injury/external (74,715)

Injury/external (77,082)

Injury/external (78,543)

Injury/external (81,111)

2

Respiratory (25,057)

Respiratory (27,064)

Respiratory (26,722)

Respiratory (27,215)

Respiratory (27,959)

3

Digestive (19,262)

Digestive (19,599)

Digestive (20,300)

Digestive (20,678)

Digestive (20,724)

4

Musculoskeletal (18,250)

Musculoskeletal (18,664)

Musculoskeletal (19,537)

Musculoskeletal (20,066)

Musculoskeletal (20,585)

5

Genitourinary (16,473)

Genitourinary (16,527)

Genitourinary (16,889)

Genitourinary (17,157)

Mental (17,724)

6

Mental (14,797)

Mental (15,286)

Mental (15,862)

Mental (16,677)

Genitourinary (17,302)

7

Infections (13,420)

Infections (14,913)

Infections (15,046)

Infections (15,824)

Infections (15,899)

8

Circulatory (11,640)

Circulatory (11,852)

Circulatory (12,454)

Circulatory (12,699)

Circulatory (13,183)

9

Skin (11,003)

Skin (11,017)

Skin (11,077)

Skin (11,598)

Skin (12,069)

10

Nervous (6,031)

Nervous (6,094)

Nervous (6,538)

Nervous (6,716)

Nervous (6,725)

Data Source and Notes for Table 4

Unscheduled emergency department visits, National Ambulatory Care Reporting System (2013 to 2017). Ontario Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care, IntelliHealth Ontario. Extracted October 10, 2018.

  • ED visits without a diagnosis (‘signs and symptoms’, >60,000 each year) and those that do not represent conditions (‘health factors’, >10,000 visits each year) have been excluded from the ranking
  • ED visits are presented by ICD-10 chapter
  • ED visits are based on the residence (Ottawa) of the patient and not the hospital that was visited. ED visits for Ottawa residents out of Ontario are not included.
Table 5. Leading causes of emergency department visits in Ottawa (and number of visits) by ICD-10 chapter by age in 2017

Rank

Under 5 Years

5 to 19 Years

20 to 44 Years

45 to 64 Years

65 Years and Older

1

Respiratory (6,808)

Injury/external (18,236)

Injury/external (25,637)

Injury/external (17,002)

Injury/external (14,316)

2

Injury/external (5,911)

Respiratory (3,995)

Mental (8,882)

Musculoskeletal (7,147)

Circulatory (7,747)

3

Infections (4,077)

Mental (2,935)

Digestive (6,659)

Digestive (5,834)

Respiratory (6,501)

4

Ear (1,759)

Infections (2,758)

Genitourinary (6,527)

Respiratory (4,690)

Musculoskeletal (5,532)

5

Skin (1,037)

Digestive (1,937)

Musculoskeletal (6,358)

Genitourinary (4,254)

Digestive (5,459)

6

Digestive (835)

Genitourinary (1,474)

Respiratory (5,965)

Circulatory (3,778)

Genitourinary (4,398)

7

Perinatal (717)

Skin (1,473)

Obstetrical (4,320)

Mental (3,770)

Infections (2,658)

8

Genitourinary (649)

Musculoskeletal (1,305)

Infections (4,086)

Skin (3,269)

Skin (2,588)

9

Eye (326)

Ear (1,131)

Skin (3,702)

Infections (2,320)

Mental (2,072)

10

Musculoskeletal (242)

Nervous (641)

Nervous (2,567)

Nervous (1,802)

Nervous (1,618)

 Data Source and Notes for Table 5

Unscheduled emergency department visits, National Ambulatory Care Reporting System (2017). Ontario Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care, IntelliHealth Ontario. Extracted October 10, 2018.

  • ED visits without a diagnosis (‘signs and symptoms’) and those that do not represent conditions (‘health factors’) have been excluded from the ranking
  • ED visits are presented by ICD-10 chapter
  • ED visits are based on the residence (Ottawa) of the patient and not the hospital that was visited. ED visits for Ottawa residents out of Ontario are not included.

Leading Causes of Hospitalizations by Year and Age

  • Obstetrical reasons (e.g., pregnancy, childbirth, puerperium) were the leading cause of hospitalizations in Ottawa every year from 2013 to 2017. About half (51%) of hospitalizations of 20 to 44 year olds were obstetrical (Table 6). 
  • In 2016, the number of hospitalizations for mental and behavioural disorders surpassed hospitalizations for diseases of the circulatory system, and remained higher in 2017 (Table 6).
  • By age, the leading causes for hospitalizations varies. In 2017, mental and behavioural disorders were the leading cause of hospitalization for those aged 5 to 19 years (27% of hospitalizations), and the second leading cause of hospitalizations for those aged 20 to 44 years (16%), after obstetrical (Table 7). 
Table 6. Leading causes of hospitalizations in Ottawa (and number of visits) by ICD-10 chapter from 2013 to 2017

Rank

2013

2014

2015

2016

2017

1

Obstetrical (10,075)

Obstetrical (9,940)

Obstetrical (9,716)

Obstetrical (9,810)

Obstetrical (9.855)

2

Circulatory (6,472)

Circulatory (6,553)

Circulatory (6,641)

Mental (6,919)

Mental (7,144)

3

Mental (6,137)

Digestive (6,210)

Mental (6,280)

Circulatory (6,908)

Circulatory (7,094)

4

Digestive (6,095)

Mental (6,204)

Digestive (6,205)

Digestive (6,490)

Digestive (6,424)

5

Injury/external (4,848)

Injury/external (4,990)

Injury/external (5,142)

Injury/external (5,224)

Injury/external (5,256)

6

Respiratory (4,368)

Respiratory (4,630)

Respiratory (4,796)

Respiratory (4,667)

Respiratory (4,848)

7

Musculoskeletal (4,023)

Musculoskeletal (4,107)

Musculoskeletal (4,314)

Musculoskeletal (4,605)

Musculoskeletal (4,846)

8

Neoplasms (3,944)

Neoplasms (3,995)

Neoplasms (4,026)

Neoplasms (4,139)

Neoplasms (3,947)

9

Genitourinary (3,645)

Genitourinary (3,766)

Genitourinary (3,536)

Genitourinary (3,576)

Genitourinary (3,671)

10

Metabolic (1,461)

Infections (1,633)

Infections (1,791)

Infections (1,829)

Infections (1,878)

Data Source and Notes for Table 6

Hospitalizations (inpatient discharges), Discharge Abstract Database (2013 to 2017). Ontario Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care IntelliHealth Ontario. Extracted October 12, 2018.

  • Hospitalizations without a diagnosis (2,940 hospitalizations labeled as ‘signs and symptoms’ in the ICD chapter descriptions) and those that do not represent conditions (3,178 hospitalizations labelled as ‘health factors’ in the ICD chapter descriptions) have been excluded from the ranking
  • Hospitalizations are presented by ICD-10 chapter
  • Hospitalizations are based on the residence (Ottawa) of the patient and not the hospital location. Hospitalizations for Ottawa residents out of Ontario are not included.

Adult Mental Health or Addictions Hospitalization (admissions), Ontario Mental Health Reporting System (2017). Ontario Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care IntelliHealth Ontario. Extracted October 11, 2018.

  • Admissions to adult mental health beds are included in hospitalizations for mental and behavioural disorders (any DSM-IV diagnosis code).
Table 7. Leading causes of hospitalizations in Ottawa (and number of visits) by ICD-10 chapter by age group in 2017

Rank

Under 5 Years  

 5 to 19 Years 

20 to 44 Years

45 to 64 Years

65 Years and Older

1

Perinatal (617)

Mental (800)

Obstetrical (9,684)

Digestive (1,994)

Circulatory (4,800)

2

Respiratory (504)

Digestive (421)

Mental (2,998)

Circulatory (1,890)

Respiratory (2,898)

3

Congenital (153)

Injury/external (369)

Digestive (1,415)

Mental (1,759)

Musculoskeletal (2,796)

4

Injury/external (133)

Respiratory (229)

Injury/external (856)

Musculoskeletal (1,641)

Injury/external (2,638)

5

Nervous (107)

Nervous (122)

Genitourinary (635)

Neoplasms (1,465)

Digestive (2,529)

6

Infections (106)

Obstetrical (120)

Neoplasms (439)

Injury/external (1,260)

Neoplasms (1,972)

7

Digestive (75)

Genitourinary (95)

Metabolic (412)

Genitourinary (1,069)

Genitourinary (1,824)

8

Genitourinary (48)

Infections (92)

Circulatory (310)

Respiratory (933)

Mental (1,581)

9

Circulatory (40)

Musculoskeletal (92)

Musculoskeletal (291)

Metabolic (557)

Infections (1,051)

10

Metabolic (37)

Metabolic (85)

Respiratory (281)

Infections (417)

Metabolic (651)

 Data Source and Notes for Table 7

Hospitalizations (inpatient discharges), Discharge Abstract Database (2013 to 2017). Ontario Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care IntelliHealth Ontario. Extracted October 12, 2018.

  • Hospitalizations without a diagnosis (labeled as ‘signs and symptoms’ in the ICD chapter descriptions) and those that do not represent conditions (3,178 hospitalizations labelled as ‘health factors’ in the ICD chapter descriptions) have been excluded from the ranking
  • Hospitalizations are presented by ICD-10 chapter
  • Hospitalizations are based on the residence (Ottawa) of the patient and not the hospital location. Hospitalizations for Ottawa residents out of Ontario are not included.

Adult Mental Health or Addictions Hospitalization (admissions), Ontario Mental Health Reporting System (2017). Ontario Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care IntelliHealth Ontario. Extracted October 11, 2018.

  • Admissions to adult mental health beds are included in hospitalizations for mental and behavioural disorders (any DSM-IV diagnosis code). 

Leading Cause of Death by Sex and Age

  • In 2012, there were 5,397 deaths among Ottawa residents (Table 8). Since 1986, Ottawa has consistently had lower rates of death, on average, than in Ontario-less-Ottawa. [5]
  • The leading cause of death varied by age and sex (Table 8Table 9, Table 10). 

Sex:

  • Ischemic heart disease (IHD) was the most common cause of death for Ottawa males in 2012 (Table 8).
  • Dementia & Alzheimer’s surpassed IHD to become the leading cause of death for Ottawa females in 2012 (Table 8).

Age:

  • For children aged 0 to 4 years, perinatal conditions (e.g., extreme prematurity) were the most common cause of death (Table 9, Table 10).
  • Injuries accounted for the most common causes of death among young adult males (age 20 to 44 years)(Table 10). The top three causes of death were:
    • suicide,
    • unintentional poisoning and substance misuse, and
    • transport collisions.
  • For older age groups, the pattern of leading causes of death followed the overall pattern across all ages (Table 9, Table 10).
Table 8. Leading causes of death by sex in Ottawa in 2012

Rank

Cause of Death for Total Population

Total Death Count 

 Percentage of Total Population

Cause of Death for Females

Female Death Count

Percentage of Female Deaths

Cause of Death for Males

Male Death Count

Percentage of Male Deaths

1

Ischemic heart disease

692

13%

Dementia & Alzheimer's

374

13%

Ischemic heart disease

373

14%

2

Dementia & Alzheimer's

543

10%

Ischemic Heart Disease

319

11%

Lung cancer

196

8%

3

Lung cancer

390

7%

Lung cancer

194

7%

Dementia & Alzheimer's

169

7%

4

Cerebrovascular

296

5%

Cerebrovascular

186

7%

Colorectal cancer

118

5%

5

Colorectal cancer

231

4%

Breast cancer

127

5%

Cerebrovascular

110

4%

6

Lower respiratory

219

4%

Colorectal cancer

113

4%

Cancer-lymph, blood

110

4%

7

Cancer-lymph, blood

179

3%

Lower respiratory

109

4%

Diabetes

85

3%

8

Diabetes

166

3%

Diabetes

81

3%

Prostate cancer

78

3%

9

Falls

132

2%

Cancer-lymph, blood

76

3%

Falls

58

2%

10

Breast cancer

128

2%

Flu/pneumonia

76

3%

Urinary

56

2%

Total

 

5397

 

 

2817

 

 

2580

 

Table 9. Leading causes of death by age for females in Ottawa in 2012
RankCause of Female Death - 0 to 4 YearsNumber of Female Deaths - 0 to 4 Years Percentage of Female Deaths - 0 to 4 Years Cause of Female Death - 5 to 19 YearsNumber of Female Deaths  - 5 to 19 Years Percentage of Female Deaths - 5 to 19 Years Cause of Female Death - 20 to 44 YearsNumber  of Female Deaths - 20 to 44 Years Percentage of Female Deaths -20 to 44 Years Cause of Female Death - 45 to 64 YearsNumber of Female Deaths - 45 to 64 Years Percentage of Female Deaths - 45 to 64 Years Cause of Female Death - 65 Years and OlderNumber of Female Deaths - 65 Years  and OlderPercentage of Female Deaths - 65 Years  and Older
1 Perinatal conditions 11 50%       Breast cancer 9 15% Breast cancer 48 13% Dementia & Alzheimer's 372 16%
2                   Lung cancer 44 12% Ischemic heart disease 285 12%
3                   Ischemic heart disease 34 9%  Cerebrovascular 176 8%
4                   Colorectal cancer 28 7% Lung cancer 149 6%
5                   Cancer-lymph, blood 19 5% Lower respiratory 98 4%
6                   Ovarian cancer 17 4% Colorectal cancer 81 3%
7                   Diabetes 11 3% Influenza/pneumonia 74 3%
8                   Brain cancer 10 3% Breast cancer 70 3%
8                   Lower respiratory 10 3% Diabetes 70 3%
8                   Cirrhosis 10 3% Falls 70 3%
 8                   Pancreatic cancer 10 3%      
Total   22     8     61     381     2345  
Table 10. Leading causes of death by age for males in Ottawa in 2012
 RankCause of Male Death - 0 to 4 YearsNumber of  Male Deaths - 0 to 4 Years oPercentage of Male Deaths - 0 to 4 Years Cause of Male Death - 5 to 19 YearsNumber of Male Deaths - 5 to 19 Years Percentage of Male Deaths - 5 to 19 Years Cause of Male Death - 20 to 44 YearsNumber of Male Deaths - 20 to 44 YearsPercentage of Male Deaths - 20 to 44 Years Cause of Male Death - 45 to 64 YearsNumber of Male Deaths - 45 to 64 Years Percentage of Male Deaths - 45 to 64 Years Cause of Male Death - 65 Years and OlderNumber of Male Deaths - 65 Years and Older Percentage of Male Deaths - 65 Years and Older
1 Perinatal conditions 13 65%       Suicide 24 23% Ischemic heart disease 81 17% Ischemic heart disease 291 15%
2             Unintentional poisoning & overdose 12 11% Lung cancer 48 10% Dementia & Alzheimer's 168 9%
3             Transport collision 10 10% Cancer-lymph, blood 29 6% Lung cancer 147 8%
4                   Colorectal cancer 24 5% Lower respiratory 95 5%
5                   Cirrhosis 22 4% Colorectal cancer 93 5%
6                   Suicide 20 4% Cerebrovascular 93 5%
7                   Diabetes 19 4% Prostate cancer 73 4%
8                   Pancreatic cancer 16 3% Cancer-lymph, blood 69 4%
9                   Cerebrovascular 16 3% Diabetes 64 3%
10                   Lower respiratory 15 3% Urinary 55 3%
Total   20     12     105     490     1953  
 Data Source and Notes for Table 8, Table 9 and Table 10

Ottawa Deaths, Ontario Mortality Data (2012). Ontario Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care IntelliHealth Ontario. Extracted August 4, 2017.

  • The leading causes of death are reported by the Association of Public Health Epidemiologist's modifications to Becker’s leading cause of death groupings. [1] This list provides more specific causes of death (e.g. lunch cancer) rather than broad groupings (e.g. all cancers) and may differ from lists published by other agencies.
  • Death data are collected from death certificates completed by physicians. The underlying cause of death is the disease or injury which initiated the chain of events leading to death.
  • Deaths represent the residence (Ottawa) of the deceased and not where the death occurred; deaths occurring outside Ontario are not included.
  • Categories with less than 5 deaths are not shown.

 

Premature Deaths and Potential Years of Life Lost
  • In 2012, 1,914 deaths were premature, occurring before the age of 75 years, accounting for 35% of all deaths in Ottawa (Figure 1).  Injuries (intentional and unintentional), cancer and heart disease are the leading causes of premature death in Ottawa.

Avoidable deaths are those that could have been avoided through either preventing the onset of disease (e.g., through prevention programs, public health policies, or effective health care) or delaying death once a disease or condition has developed (e.g., through screening and treatment). [6

  • Avoidable mortality accounted for 71% of premature deaths in Ottawa in 2012 (Figure 1).
  • Almost two thirds (63%; 848) of avoidable premature deaths in Ottawa in 2012 were preventable (Figure 1).
  • In 2012, there were 13,694 potential years of life lost (PYLL) from preventable deaths in Ottawa, primarily due to injuries and cancer (Table 11). 

 Figure 1.  Premature and potentially avoidable deaths in Ottawa in 2012

Breakdown of Ottawa deaths in 2012 by type (e.g. premature, preventable). In 2012, there were 5,397 deaths in Ottawa. Thirty-five percent of these deaths were premature (i.e. under the age of 75)(1,914 deaths) and 65% were over the age of 75 years (3,483 deaths). Of the premature deaths, 71% were avoidable (1,354 deaths) and 29% were unavoidable (560 deaths). Of the avoidable deaths, 63% were preventable (848 deaths) and 37% were treatable (506 deaths).

Data Source and Notes for Figure 1

Ontario Agency for Health Protection and Promotion (Public Health Ontario). Snapshots: Potentially avoidable mortality Snapshot: mortality from avoidable causes–crude rate (both sexes) 2012. Toronto, ON.

  • Figure adapted from Statistics Canada and CIHI, Health Indicators 2012, 2012.
Description of Figure 1

In 2012, there were 5,397 deaths in Ottawa. Thirty-five percent of these deaths were premature (i.e. under the age of 75)(1,914 deaths) and 65% were over the age of 75 years (3,483 deaths). Of the premature deaths, 71% were avoidable (1,354 deaths) and 29% were unavoidable (560 deaths). Of the avoidable deaths, 63% were preventable (848 deaths) and 37% were treatable (506 deaths).

Table 11. Number of preventable deaths and potential years of life lost (PYLL) among Ottawa residents less than 75 years of age in 2012

Cause of Death

Number of Deaths

PYLL

Injuries (intentional and unintentional)

167

5,330

Cancer

345

4,027

Cardiovascular diseases

157

2,059

Respiratory diseases

71

703

Other*

108

1,575

Total

848

13,694

 Data Source and Notes for Table 10

Ontario Agency for Health Protection and Promotion (Public Health Ontario). Snapshots: Potentially avoidable mortality Snapshot: mortality from avoidable causes–crude rate (both sexes) 2012. Toronto, ON.

Ontario Agency for Health Protection and Promotion (Public Health Ontario). Snapshots: Potential years of life lost from avoidable causes Snapshot: potential years of life lost from avoidable causes-crude rate (both sexes) 2012 [Internet]. Toronto, ON: Queen’s Printer for Ontario; [updated 2017 Jun 30; cited 2018 Oct 18]. Available from: publichealthontario.ca/en/DataAndAnalytics/Snapshots/Pages/Potential-years-of-life-lostfrom-avoidable-causes.aspx

*Other preventable deaths are from conditions such as diabetes, chronic liver disease, perinatal conditions, vaccine preventable diseases, etc.

Quality of Life Data

Each person has their own idea of what is good general health. For some, it means the absence of illness, injury or pain. Others may view good health more holistically, similar to the World Health Organization’s definition of health: "a state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity.” [7]

Self-Rated Health 

In Ottawa:

  • About two-thirds (67%) of residents aged 12 years and older reported very good or excellent health, higher than the Ontario-less-Ottawa average (61%). [8]
  • Younger residents were more likely to rate their health as very good or excellent compared to older residents (Figure 2).
  • Parents living with children (77%) reported higher self-rated health than single parents (52%) and those living alone (55%) (Figure 2).
  • As household income increased, self-rated health also increased (Figure 2).
  • Residents who owned their house (71%) reported higher self-rated health than those who rent their homes (58%) (Figure 2).

Figure 2. Percentage of Ottawa residents (12 years and older) who reported excellent or very good health, by selected socio-demographic indicators in 2015/16

Bar chart of the percentage of Ottawa residents, 12 years and older, who reported very good or excellent health by selected socio-economic factors in 2015/2016.

 Data Source and Notes for Figure 2

Ottawa Public Health. Canadian Community Health Survey 2015/16. Ontario Share File. Statistics Canada.

  • The Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS) is an annual national population health survey conducted by Statistics Canada.
  • Error bars represent 95% confidence intervals.
  • Household income quintile (Q1 to Q5) is a measure of household income relative to all other survey respondents in Ottawa, adjusted for household size. A respondent in Q1 would be in the lowest 20% of household incomes and a respondent in Q5 would be in the highest 20% of household incomes.
 Data Table for Figure 2
Table 12. Percentage of Ottawa residents (12 years and older) who reported excellent or very good health, by selected socio-demographic indicators in 2015/16

Socio-demographic Indicator

Excellent/ Very Good Self-Rated Health 

95% Confidence Intervals

Ottawa

66.9%

63.3% to 70.3%

Ontario-less-Ottawa

60.5%

59.5% to 61.5%

12 to 19

77.5%

67.5% to 85.1%

20 to 44

68.5%

62.5% to 73.9%

45 to 64

69.4%

62.3% to 75.7%

65+

51.4%

43.4% to 59.2%

Unattached living alone

55.3%

49.4% to 61.1%

Single parent and child(ren)

51.6%

39.6% to 63.4%

Parents and child(ren)

76.8%

70.7% to 81.9%

Living with others, no child(ren)

67.1%

60.8% to 72.8%

Other/not stated

49.9%

35.1% to 64.8%

Own house

71.0%

66.7% to 75.0%

Rent house

58.1%

51.5% to 64.5%

Quintile 1 (Lowest income)

40.8%

33.8% to 48.2%

Quintile 2

69.9%

61.6% to 77.0%

Quintile 3

65.2%

55.4% to 73.9%

Quintile 4

76.1%

68.7% to 82.2%

Quintile 5 (Highest income)

81.6%

75.7% to 86.4%

Life Satisfaction
  • In 2015/16, approximately nine in ten (91%) Ottawa residents aged 12 years and older reported they were satisfied or very satisfied with their life, similar to the Ontario-less-Ottawa average. [8]
  • Younger residents were more likely to report they were satisfied or very satisfied with their life, compared to older residents (Figure 3).
  • Residents with post secondary education were more likely to report they were satisfied or very satisfied with their life compared to those with high school graduation or less than high school graduation (Figure 3).
  • Satisfaction with life varied by household income, where those in higher income quintiles reported they were satisfied or very satisfied with life more often than those in lower income quintiles (Figure 3).

Figure 3. Percentage of Ottawa residents (12 years and older) who reported they were satisfied or very satisfied with their life, by selected socio-demographic indicators in 2015/16

Bar chart of the Percentage of Ottawa residents (12 years and older) who reported they were satisfied or very satisfied with their life by income quintile in 2015/16

 Data Source and Notes for Figure 3

Ottawa Public Health. Canadian Community Health Survey 2015/16. Ontario Share File. Statistics Canada.

  • The Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS) is an annual national population health survey conducted by Statistics Canada.
  • Error bars represent 95% confidence intervals.
  • Household income quintile (Q1 to Q5) is a measure of household income relative to all other survey respondents in Ottawa, adjusted for household size. A respondent in Q1 would be in the lowest 20% of household incomes and a respondent in Q5 would be in the highest 20% of household incomes.
  Data Table for Figure 3
Table 13. Percentage of Ottawa residents (12 years and older) who reported that they were satisfied or very satisfied with their life, by selected socio-demographic indicators in 2015/16

Socio-demographic Indicator

Satisfied or Very Satisfied with Life 

95% Confidence Intervals

Ottawa

91.2%

88.9% to 93.1%

Ontario-less-Ottawa

88.3%

87.7% to 88.9%

12 to 19

94.8%

87.8% to 97.9%

20 to 44

95.5%

93.7% to 96.8%

45 to 64

88.2%

82.7% to 92.2%

65+

84.1%

76.4% to 89.6%

Less than high school graduation

80.0%

56.9% to 92.4%

High school graduation

82.4%

71.4% to 89.7%

Post-secondary education

93.1%

90.6% to 95.0%

Unattached living alone

86.8%

80.4% to 91.3%

Single parent and child(ren)

86.0%

76.8% to 92.0%

Parents and child(ren)

95.1%

91.8% to 97.0%

Living with others, no child(ren)

92.1%

87.9% to 94.9%

Other/not stated

79.6%

61.1% to 90.6%

At work last week

96.1%

94.1% to 97.4%

Absent from work last week

91.2%

80.9% to 96.2%

No job last week

87.3%

82.4% to 91.0%

Quintile 1 (Lowest income)

78.3%

70.9% to 84.3%

Quintile 2

87.6%

82.1% to 91.6%

Quintile 3

96.0%

92.3% to 98.0%

Quintile 4

96.6%

92.8% to 98.5%

Quintile 5 (Highest income)

97.0%

91.9% to 99.0%

 Life Expectancy
  • Life expectancy at birth for Ottawa men increased slightly from 81.3 years in 2010 to 2012 to 81.9 years in 2014 to 2016. For Ottawa women, life expectancy did not change between 2010 and 2016, estimated at 85.2 years (2014 to 2016). [9]
  • For both men and women, life expectancy at birth was slightly higher than the Ontario average (80.5 years for men and 84.5 years for women in 2014 to 2016). [9
  • At 65 years of age, men can expect to live for another 21 years (to age 86) and women for 23 years (to age 88). These estimates are higher than the provincial average (Ontario men at age 65: 19.6 years; Ontario women at age 65: 22.4 years) in 2014 to 2016. [9]

Reports on Morbidity and Mortality

 State of Ottawa's Health, 2014

The State of Ottawa's Health 2014 report provides an overview of key health conditions and indicators that have a significant impact on the health of Ottawa's population.

State of Ottawa's Health, 2014 - Full report [PDF 8 MB]
State of Ottawa's Health, 2014 - Infographics [PDF 2 MB]

 Morbidity and Mortality in Ottawa, 2012
The Morbidity and Mortality in Ottawa 2012 report provides an epidemiological overview of morbidity and mortality in the City of Ottawa, where possible compared to the rest of Ontario. These data help assess causes of morbidity and mortality. Indicators of morbidity and mortality include hospitalization rates, life expectancy and mortality rates.
Morbidity and Mortality in Ottawa 2012 report [7.7 MB]

References

References
  1. Becker R, Silvi J, Ma Fat D, L'Hours A, Laurenti R. A method for deriving leading causes of death. Bull World Health Organ. 2006 Apr;84(4):297-304.
  2. Ambulatory Visit Cube, National Ambulatory Care Reporting System (2013 to 2017). Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care, Ontario, IntelliHEALTH ONTARIO. Extracted Oct 10, 2018
  3. Hospitalizations (inpatient discharges), Discharge Abstract Database (2013 to 2017). Ontario Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care IntelliHealth Ontario. Extracted October 12, 2018.

  4. Adult Mental Health or Addictions Hospitalization (admissions), Ontario Mental Health Reporting System (2017). Ontario Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care IntelliHealth Ontario. Extracted October 11, 2018.
  5. Buajitti E, Chiodo S, Watson T, Kornas K, Bornbaum C, Henry D, Rosella LC. Ontario atlas of adult mortality,
    1992-2015, Version 2.0: Trends in Public Health Units. Toronto, ON: Population Health Analytics Lab; 2018.
  6. Canadian Institute for Health Information, Statistics Canada. Health Indicators 2012. Ottawa: CIHI;2012 [cited 2014 Apr 7]. Available from: https://secure.cihi.ca/free_products/health_indicators_2012_en.pdf
  7. World Health Organization. WHO definition of Health, Preamble to the Constitution of the World Health Organization as adopted by the International Health Conference. New York; 1946 June 19–22.
  8. Ottawa Public Health. Canadian Community Health Survey 2015/16. Ontario Share File. Statistics Canada
  9. Statistics Canada.  Table  13-10-0063-01   Life expectancy, at birth and at age 65, by sex, three-year average, Canada, provinces, territories, health regions and peer groups [Accessed September 2018]

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