Harm Reduction Services in Ottawa

⚠ Increase in xylazine and benzodiazepines in Ontario’s unregulated drug supply. Read the memo from Ontario's Chief Medical Officer of Health Dr. Kieran Moore.

Harm reduction services, such as Ottawa Public Health's Site Needle and Syringe Program, help reduce harm to people who use drugs and also protect our community. This is done by distributing supplies (such as needles) for safer drug use, teaching about safer drug use, and referring people to other health and social services.

Site Needle and Syringe Program

The City of Ottawa's Site Needle and Syringe Program is an effective mandatory health program, which has been in operation since 1991. The availability of these programs have been deemed a necessary public health measure to prevent the spread of communicable diseases, primarily HIV and Hepatitis-C virus, and to minimize the risks associated with substance use in society.

Program information and background

Mandate of the Ontario Ministry of Health and Long Term Care


In the late 1980's, the rate of HIV and Hepatitis B and C infection grew to epidemic proportions among injection drug users. The Ministry of Health acknowledged the urgent need to implement harm reduction strategies to control the epidemic. The human costs, as well as the financial burden HIV infection was placing on the health-care system, were a major concern.

The Ontario Ministry of Health, under the Health Protection and Promotion Act mandated that:

"The board of health shall ensure that injection drug users can have access to sterile injection equipment by the provision of needle and syringe exchange programs as a strategy to prevent transmission of[ HIV, hepatitis B, hepatitis C and other blood-borne infections and other associated diseases in areas where drug use is recognized as a problem in the community. The strategy shall also include counselling and education and referral to primary health services and addiction/treatment services. The board of health shall produce an annual report of program activities and forward a copy to the Minister of Health

Program goals
To educate clients to reduce and avoid the risk of transmission of HIV, hepatitis and other blood-borne pathogens by:
  • Increasing awareness of the risks involved in needle sharing, other drug using behaviours and unprotected sex. To enhance the skills needed to change high-risk behaviours and/or maintain low and no risk behaviours.
  • Providing accurate information on all modes of HIV transmission (including sexual transmission), testing and prevention.

Providing health education, needle exchange, and condom distribution. To encourage self-esteem in substance users and other clients and an awareness of health issues by:

  • Increasing awareness of health status regarding HIV and hepatitis B and C by offering testing.
  • Encouraging and providing hepatitis A/B and influenza vaccination.
  • Providing health education, anonymous HIV testing, confidential testing for hepatitis B and C, Chlamydia, gonorrhea, syphilis, provision of hepatitis A/B vaccine, HIV and hepatitis C counselling and partner follow-up.

To provide a supportive environment for substance users and other clients to access medical and social services by:

  • Gaining a client's trust to a point of access for meeting their service and health care needs.
  • Referring substance users to treatment, counselling services, medical and other social service supports.
  • Providing crisis counselling, referrals to community agencies and drug treatment programs.
Services provided
  • distribution of harm reduction supplies (injecting and inhalation supplies)
  • distribution of condoms and lube
  • health education/ promotion
  • substance use counselling
  • general counselling and support
  • referral to health and social service agencies including drug treatment services
  • Peer Overdose Prevention Program(POPP) please reference below for more information

Clinical services offered:

POPP (Peer Overdose Prevention Program)

Are you at risk of opiate overdose?

Did you know?
  • Anyone can overdose (first time and long time users, youth and older adults).
  • Fentanyl is often made as a powder and mixed with other drugs. It is also being pressed into pills. It is around 50 to 100 times more toxic than morphine. This makes the risk of accidental overdose much higher.
  • There is an increased risk of overdose after a period of non-use (like being released from prison, hospital, or a treatment facility) or from a lack of access to drugs.
What can I do to reduce my overdose risks?
Here are some overdose prevention tips:
  • Avoid using alone. Fix with a friend and leave the door unlocked.
  • Avoid mixing drugs with prescription and over the counter drugs, alcohol, benzodiazepines, other opiates and/or uppers like cocaine or crack.
  • Use one drug at a time if you are mixing and take a break between drugs.
  • Inject, snort, or smoke a very small amount first to test its strength.
  • Illicit fentanyl is much more toxic than other pharmaceutical opioids
  • There is no easy way to know if fentanyl is in your drugs. You can't see it, smell it or taste it
  • Fentanyl is being cut (mixed) into both opioid and non opioid drugs
  • If you are feeling sick or under the weather, use less and be more careful.
  • Use less when your tolerance is low (like when you haven't used in three or more days).
  • Let your community agency know if you notice any changes with your drugs.
  • An overdose is a medical emergency! If you or someone else is overdosing, do not hesitate to CALL 9-1-1.
What is naloxone?
For information on Naloxone and overdoses visit the StopOverdoseOttawa.ca web page
What is POPP?

Peer Overdose Prevention Program

  • Education about the drug Naloxone.
  • Overdose risk and myth information.
  • Overdose prevention training.
  • Steps on how to respond to an overdose.
  • A POPP certification.
How do I get POPP?
Just walk-in the Site office or call the Site van to get a free POPP kit, certification and training.

You can also get a naloxone kit for free from pharmacies.

Supervised consumption services (SCS), Site office, Mobile van hours and other Supervised Injection Services (SIS)

Ottawa Public Health: Harm Reduction Services-locations and hours





Needle and Syringe Program Drop-In (including Supervised Consumption Services)  
179 Clarence St.

Monday to Friday  9 am to 5 pm 613-580-6744 ext. 29047

Site’ Mobile Harm Reduction Van

7 days a week 5 to 11:30 pm 


Collect calls accepted

Ottawa Supervised Consumption and Treatment Services -locations and hours 





Ottawa Public Heath – Supervised Consumption Services
179 Clarence St.

Monday to Friday  9 am to 5 pm
(last call 4:30pm)
613-580-6744 ext. 29047

Ottawa Inner City Health – ‘The Trailer’ at Shepherds of Good Hope
230 Murray St. 

7 days a week 24 hours 613-562-4500 
Sandy Hill Community Health Centre

221 Nelson St

Monday to Friday

8 am to 6 pm

(last call at 5pm)
Somerset West Community Health Centre

55 Eccles St

7 days a week

8 am to 4 pm

(Last call at 3:30 pm)

The results of routine and complaint-based inspections conducted for the ministry funded locations are posted on the Consumption and Treatment Services Disclosure website.

Partner agencies / Pharmacy partners
Over the past few years, accessibility of needle exchange and other harm reduction services in Ottawa have been greatly increased through partnerships with other agencies serving the same clientele.

Both Site Program and partner agency staff are alert for, and take advantage of, opportunities to educate clients on the safe use of syringes/glass stems and other drug using equipment. 

  • AIDS Committee of Ottawa 19 Main Street, 613-238-5014
  • Carlington Community Health Centre 900 Merivale Road, 613-722-4000
  • Centre 454 454 King Edward Avenue,613-235-4351
  • Centre 507 507 Bank Street, 613-233-5626
  • Centretown Community Health Centre 420 Cooper Street, 613-233-4697
  • Elizabeth Fry Society of Ottawa 311-211 Bronson Avenue, 613-237-7427
  • Lowertown Community Resource Centre 40 Cobourg Street 613-789-3930 
  • Max Ottawa 400 Cooper Street, Suite 9004, 613-701-6555
  • Minwaashin Lodge - STORM Van  424 Catherine Street 613-265-7558
  • Ontario Addictions Treatment Centres
    • 401 Somerset Street W. 613-233-1114
    • 1318 Carling Avenue, 613-627-0856
    • 263 Montreal Road, 613-749-9666
  • Ontario Aboriginal HIV/AIDS Strategy (OAHAS) 815 St. Laurent Blvd. 1-800-743-8851
  • Operation Come Home 150 Gloucester Street, 613-230-4663
  • OPH Site Needle and Syringe Program 179 Clarence Street, 613-234-4641 Site Van, 613-232-3232
  • Onyx Community Service 311 McArthur Avenue, 613-745-8889
  • Pinecrest-Queensway Health and Community Services 1365 Richmond Road, 2nd floor, 613-820-2001
  • Sandy Hill Community Health Centre 221 Nelson Street, 613-569-3488
  • Shepherds of Good Hope 230 Murray Street, 613-241-6494 256 King Edward Ave, 613-562-7845
  • Somerset West Community Health Centre 55 Eccles Street, 613-238-1220 NESI Mobile Van 613-761-0003
  • South-East Ottawa Community Health Centre 1355 Bank Street, suite 600, 613-737-5115
  • St. Luke's Table 760 Somerset St. W.  613-233-4786
  • Wabano Centre for Aboriginal Health 299 Montreal Road Vanier, 613-748-5999
  • Youth Services Bureau of Ottawa 147 Besserer Street, 613-241-7788 ext 300

Pharmacy partners:

  • Trust Care Pharmasave  1020 St Laurent Blvd. 613-749-8577
  • Palmyra Guardian   1013 Merivale Rd.  613-729-7117
  • Parkway Pharmacy  311 McArthur Ave.  613-749-2324
  • Shoppers Drug Mart  1300 Stittsville Main Street  613-831-0901 – please speak to the pharmacist for supplies
  • Centre Town Pharmacy  326 Bank Street  613-422-2900
  • Whole Health Pharmacy Ogilvie  1150 Cadboro Rd. 613-749-7455
  • Sobeys Pharmacy  5150 Innes Rd. 613-590-7144 – also provides methadone
  • Swift Compounding Pharmacy 276 Bank St. 613-422-2202
Harm Reduction Partner Service Hours During Covid-19 Pandemic
Agency Hours Services Offered Notes Contact Information

9 am to 4 pm, last call at 3 pm 7days/week (SCS/CTS)

5 to 11:30 pm (NESI Van), Monday to Saturday

Supervised Consumption Services, Harm Reduction Supplies, Naloxone, OAT services, DOPE team continues to do targeted outreach


Update 2020/07/07: No changes to service hours or services provided.

Shortened SCS service hours, van hours remain the same

Clients screened for
respiratory symptoms at door

Limiting number of people in
space, folks may need to wait
outside for access

Drop-in space closed until
further notice

55 Eccles Street


NESI Mobile Van



24hrs/day, 7days/week Supervised consumption services, harm reduction supplies, naloxone  No change to services 

230 Murray Street


24hrs/day, 7days/week No change to services or hours Clients will be screened by nurse for respiratory symptoms 

230 Murray Street


8 am to 5 pm, last call at  4:15 pm 7days/week (SCS/CTS)

8 am to 8 pm 7days/week (Junction - gear and naloxone through door once CTS closed) 

9 am to 2 pm Monday to Friday (OAT)

MTWF 9am to 4 pm, Th 1 to 4 pm (Urgent walk-in medical care) 

Supervised consumption services, harm reduction supplies, naloxone

OAT is walk-in, however phone appointments preferred (meeting with provider via phone/OTN facilitated by a nurse)

Oasis walk-in medical care is for urgent issues only, for people who fit mandate


Update 2020/07/07: No change to above at this time.

Shortened SCS service hours

Clients screened for respiratory symptoms at door

Limiting number of people in space, folks may need to wait outside for access 

Drop-in space closed until further notice

221 Nelson Street


9 am to 5 pm Monday to Friday (Supervised Consumption Services)

5 to 11:30 pm 7days/week (Site Van) 

Supervised consumption services, naloxone, harm reduction supplies, reduced clinical services  No changes to hours

Gear at door

Clients screened for
respiratory symptoms through intercom

Limiting number of people in space, folks may need to wait

outside for access
179 Clarence Street


Site Van


Update 2020/04/22:

Sunday, Wednesday and Thursday noon to 1 pm

Tuesdays 5 to 6 pm 
Drop-in remains closed, but center is open for meals a few days per week. Reduced hours, drop-in closed 507 Bank Street


Office closed to public (no groups, IASP, etc.)

Staff working from home but remaining in contact with clients; providing community support in emergency situations.
Staff unable to drive clients (other means will be provided), essential items can be dropped off for clients outside of their home, no contact to be made.


2020/07/10 Update: Office at 311 McArthur remains closed to the public. Services continue to be delivered remotely.

  311 McArthur Ave, 2nd floor


8:30 am to 4:30 pm Mon-Fri

Open in-person for the following ONLY: harm reduction supplies, anonymous HIV testing, baby cupboard. Other services offered over the phone when possible (including crisis counselling).


Update 2020-07-07: Best to access harm reduction support from M-F 1-2:30, but someone is in the office from 8:30-4pm everyday. Anonymous HIV point of care testing available M-F 1-2:30pm.  

Shortened service hours

Clients being screened at entrance of 6th floor.

Recommended that clients call the centre for pre-screening before coming in 613-737-5115. If calling is not possible, screening will be done at reception. 

1355 Bank Street, suite 600



Centre hours: Monday to Thursday 8:30 am to 5 pm, Friday 8:30 am to 4 pm

Urban Outreach Walk-In (Thurs & Fri mornings) continue to run for folks living in rooming houses, shelters, or who are street affected

Social Service walk-in is now running over the phone

See reception for premade harm reduction bags

Update 2020/07/09: Harm reduction supplies continue to be available from 9am-5pm Mon-Thurs and 9am-4pm Fridays   

For primary care, please call ahead at 613-233-4697 for screening and to book a same-day appointment.

All clients will be screened at the door.

A mask or a face covering is mandatory. If you do not have a face covering, you will be provided with one during your visit.

Primary care team is not accepting new patients at this time. Existing patients can call to book an appointment with a healthcare provider. Many appointments are being offered by phone or videoconference at this time.  

Primary care walk-in for existing clients is still available to existing clients, call to book a same-day appointment.

420 Cooper Street


Open by appointment only for showers, Monday to Friday 9:30 am to 1:30pm Update 2020/07/07: Services on hold presently, intention is to re-open in the future.     454 King Edward Avenue


Closed for in-person visits  Not accepting new patients at this time.  If current patients would like to arrange visit via teleconference, please email reception @voicefound.ca



Harm Reduction services available: Mon/Wed/Fri 9 to 11:45 am and 1 pm to 4 pm


Primary care and other services are available by appointment only.

Update 2020/07/08:

Harm reduction supplies (injection and inhalation) now available. Come to the center during the times listed, or call 613-820-2001.
Existing clients should call to make an appointment  1365 Richmond Road, 2nd floor



Residential sites continue to operate

Aftercare services offered virtually or by phone as needed

Naloxone kits and training continue to be available to clients.

2020/04/20 Update (website): Limited residential admissions have resumed, screening guidelines in place. Virtual services also available as needed.  


Services offered via telephone Mon-Fri

Food bank by appointment only 

Update 2020/06/03: Naloxone available to clients – please call ahead for more information (613) 830-4357. Please call ahead before visiting to access harm reduction services 613-830-4357 240 Centrum Boulevard, Unit 105



8:30 am-4:30 pm Mon-Fri

Intake hours for harm reduction supplies 1-4 pm Mon-Fri

Harm reduction supplies available through intake office. HRDU outside continues to operate.

Most services now provided over phone (except HR supplies and foodbank)

Community programs suspended until further notice. 

Update 2020/07/07: No change to above services.

No evening hours

Clients must buzz doorbell, will be screened at the door and again upon entry. Clients must wear mask and sanitize their hands upon entry.

900 Merivale Road


No changes to hours Naloxone kits continue to be provided by pharmacy, harm reduction kits available for pick-up

New protocol – only 3 people allowed in clinic at a time, everyone else must wait outside until someone exits the clinic. 

Update 2020/07/07: New protocol – measures have been implemented to encourage physical distancing

401 Somerset Street W.

1318 Carling Avenue

263 Montreal Road

All drop-in programs cancelled

Tool Shed Harm Reduction Dispensary closed

Services continuing include: weekly food bank (Fridays), one-on-one support on an appointment basis, phone support, online outreach.

Update (website and Facebook): No change to above services.

  19 Main Street
No change to hours

Ottawa Withdrawal Management: No changes to services offered, however may be limiting number of admissions at this time to maintain safe environment for staff/clients.

Montfort Renaissance: The following programs are closed: Day program (Withdrawal Management), Ateliers de l’Élan, seniors programs (day programs, social and recreational activities, community support).
Transportation for medical appointments maintained.

Update 2020/07/08: Service Access to Recovery (SAR) – clients are no longer seen in-person, triage and screening is done remotely over the phone. Regular phone check-ins done with client on waiting list by a SAR navigator. 

All clients are screened prior to admission on the phone, clients will be referred elsewhere if they have respiratory symptoms. Update 2020/07/08: Screening of clients for symptoms of COVID-19.

Ottawa Withdrawal Management Centre
1777 Montreal Road

Montfort Renaissance Administration
162 Murray Street

No change to hours

Residential programs remain open

Reduced face-to-face interaction with community clients, though phone support is still available

Harm reduction supplies continue to be available.

Update 2020/07/06: Women’s drop-in re-opening soon. See website or Facebook page for more information. 

  311-211 Bronson Avenue
10am-3pm Mon-Fri The Centre (40 Coburg) open by telephone only 

Closed drop-in services. Harm reduction services still available to clients, by appointment only. Call ahead for an appointment.

45 Beausoleil (Community House): Food bank continues (Tuesday pm & Wednesday am by appointment only); delivery of meals to families living in emergency shelter (Econolodge) to replace collective kitchens; reception open for phone calls only, no one is allowed inside the building.

The Centre 40 Coburg: Intake, practical assistance, counselling and crisis intervention services offered by telephone appointment. Telephone access for residents still available.

Recommended to call first before accessing services. Office is closed to the public at this time except by phone.

Monday breakfast program @ 45 Beausoleil suspended.

Tax clinic suspended.

Thursday evening reception services suspended.

Computer program in waiting room suspended.

The distribution of vouchers, diapers, bus tickets from the Emergency Fund will be by appointment only (at the door without entering the building).

40 Coburg Street


4pm-midnight daily, no service on Tuesdays Harm reduction services remain available  Update 2020/07/07: Hours increased to 4pm-midnight daily except Tuesdays 424 Catherine Street

Mondays 8:30-11:30am

Fridays 8:30-11:30am 
Update 2020/07/07: At the door services available beginning May 22nd: Food bank, food-to-go, basic needs.  Youth can be supported by phone, text, and email with housing, employment, addictions, mental health, and more. 150 Gloucester Street
11 am-4 pm Mon-Fri

Office remains open by phone and will return messages at this time


2020/07/08 Update: Harm Reduction supplies are available at the door, clients just need to come ask for them. Office continues to be closed to clients, however services are being provided remotely over the phone. Wednesday meal service is still ongoing, clients must call to make arrangements. Plan to gradually re-open in-person services starting early August.   
  265 Montreal Road
613-422-2294 OR
9 am-5:30 pm Mon-Fri

Update 2020/07/07: Health services remain open, harm reduction supplies available (injection supplies)


Shortened hours.

Clients screened at door.

Please call ahead before accessing services.

299 Montreal Road
12 pm-6 pm Mon-Fri
1 pm-6pm Sat/Sun

Residential services remain open.


Update 2020/06/22: Downtown Services and Drop-In (DSDI) centre at 147 Besserer St. open from Monday to Friday, 12:30 – 6:00 p.m. for one-on-one client services, including wellness checks, brief support and consultations, referrals, practical needs, food bank. If you or someone you know need any of these supports, please contact us to make an appointment: 613-241-7788 or visit us at 147 Besserer St. Services are for clients aged 16 to 24.


The youth mental health drop-in clinic is now offering sessions by phone and video. Call on Tuesdays and Thursdays from 12-8pm to connect with a counsellor at 613-562-3004.


No change to drop-in hours

Building closed to public – phone only assistance.

147 Besserer Street
613-241-7788 extension 300
11 am-12 pm

Bagged lunches served at door.

All other programming suspended.

Update 2020/07/06: Community meals will be provided at McNabb Community Centre (180 Percy Street) starting July 6th. Food delivery and food hampers will de discontinued at this time.

Showers and washrooms are also available at 180 Percy Street.

Available by phone at 613-238-4193 – please call if you are in need 

760 Somerset St. West

New location: 180 Percy Street (McNabb Arena)

Office: 613-238-4193
Drop-in: 613-234-6287

10 am-1 pm Mon-Fri

9:30am-1:30pm Mon-Fri (showers)

Bagged lunches and hygiene supplies provided at door at 154 Somerset St. West.


Update 2020/06/01: Showers now available to all (men and women). By appointment only. Please call 613-594-8861. Towels, soap, shampoo and more provided.

Available by phone at 613-594-8861 – please call if you are in need 154 Somerset Street West
  Update 2020/07/07: Cornerstone’s emergency shelter and residences remain open, access is limited to residents and essential staff only. Waiting for further details 314 Booth Street
12:30-1 pm 

Community meal served outside


Clothing room closed


Update 2020/07/08 – the following services are now available:

Day Program: A drop-in, psychoeducational group offered to clients booked into the shelter. Located in the dining room. Due to safety precautions, only 25 participants are permitted at a time. Abstinence is not required but clients are expected to arrive sober.

Community Counselling: Phone sessions provided by Day Program and Hope Program staff to members of the community. Sessions are scheduled ahead of time and are a maximum of 30 minutes in length. Abstinence is not required but clients must be sober during the time of the phone call.

The Hope Program, Stabilization Program and Lifehouse Program continue to operate.

Clothing room remains closed, community meals continue to be provided outside.

  35 Waller Street

Open at 10 pm Fri/Sat/Sun

Temporary youth drop-in: Tues/Wed/Thurs only from noon-3pm

Only youth who need a place to sleep allowed in to shelter.

Youth in need of food and other supplies can access at the door only. 

Update 2020/07/07: Temporary Daytime Drop-In for Youth (ages 16-24): light lunch and snacks served; socks, oral hygiene and other essential supplies available; WiFi available; assistance with contacting community workers; phone access and phone charging station available; washroom access.

Services reduced from 5 nights/week to 3 nights/week (Fri/Sat/Sun)

New temporary drop-in during the week.

First Baptist Church

140 Laurier Street (at Elgin)

By appointment only   Please call for an appointment   613-241-1573 ext. 221
11 am - 3 am, 7days/week

Urgent transport only (ex. to hospital)

Update 2020/07/10: No changes to services, currently 2 vans available to transport clients as needed.  

Clients will be screened for respiratory symptoms before entry To access transportation services, call 311

See website for available clinics and phone numbers. Services offered by phone/video conference only.


Update 2020/07/07: Face-to-face, in-person walk-in counselling clinic now available at SWCHC (30 Rosemout Ave, Ottawa).

New centralized phone number for easier access.


Individual site phone numbers are also available on the website.  


Centralized phone number: 613-755-2277

9 am - 5 pm Mon-Fri  Harm reduction supplies remain available  No changes to service hours

1919 Riverside Drive

No change Harm reduction supplies remain available No change to hours 

1020 St. Laurent Boulevard

9 am - 6 pm Mon-Fri
9 am - 3 pm Sat
10 am -11 am Sun
Harm reduction supplies remain available  No change to hours

1013 Merivale Road

8 am - 10 pm Harm reduction supplies remain available Reduced service hours (previously closed at midnight)

1300 Stittsville Main Street



Ham reduction supplies remain available 

Reduced service hours (previously closed at midnight)

2020/07/07 Update (website): No change to reduced hours.

1300 Stittsville Main Street


6am-6pm Mon-Fri

8am-4pm Sat-Sun
Harm reduction supplies remain available  No change to hours

326 Bank Street


9am-7pm Mon-Fri

10am-3pm Sat
Closed Sun

Harm reduction supplies remain available No change to hours

1150 Cadboro Road


Updated hours 2020/07/08:

9am-9pm Mon-Fri

9am-6pm Sat

10am-5pm Sun

Harm reduction supplies remain available  Modified service hours

5150 Innes Road



Harm reduction dispensing units

In 2017, Ottawa Public Health (OPH) launched a pilot project that saw four (4) harm reduction dispensing units installed at various locations across the city. Harm reduction programs and services are an integral part of Ottawa Public Health's front-line work within the City of Ottawa. The harm reduction dispensing units fill a current gap in service for those who need safer drug using supplies when in-person services are not available.

What is a harm reduction dispensing machine?

A harm reduction dispensing unit (HRDUs) is a machine that distributes safer drug using supplies such as sterile needles and other safer injection supplies as well as supplies for safer inhalation. Harm reduction materials help prevent the re-use or sharing of needles and other materials with a goal of reducing the transmission of infectious diseases such as HIV and Hepatitis C. 

Where are the harm dispensing units installed?
  • Carlington Community Health Services - 900 Merivale Road
What do the harm reduction dispensing units contain?

The harm reduction dispensing units contain single-use equipment to help prevent disease transmission and reduce potential health risks associated with drug use. The units will supply:

  • Sterile needles and other safer injection supplies as well as supplies for safer inhalation, and information on how to access harm reduction services
  • All safer injection supplies are packaged in a small biohazard container for safe disposal and safer inhalation supplies are packaged in an envelope
  • Each safer injection pack contains alcohol swabs, sterile needles, steri-cups, sterile water and a tourniquet
  • Each safer inhalation kit contains glass stems, packs of screens, push sticks, mouthpieces and a token
Will harm reduction units replace front-line services that Ottawa Public Health offers?

Harm reduction dispensing units complement and do not replace front-line services. Ottawa Public Health recognizes the value of front-line contact and the opportunity for support, and referral to other services (such as mental health, treatment).  The addition of harm reduction dispensing units ensures that people can access harm reduction supplies during times of the day when services are closed.

Why are the dispensing units being implemented?

Results from several local studies that have examined the needs of people who use drugs in Ottawa have identified that there is a need to increase access to harm reduction services in the city. On June 20 2016, the Board of Health (BOH) approved a report entitled  Enhanced Harm Reduction Services in Ottawa - Data, Guiding Principle and Next Steps and updated the Board of Health June 19, 2017 with its report entitled Harm Reduction and Overdose Prevention - Overview and Update.

Harm reduction dispensing units have been introduced in several European countries including Switzerland, Germany, France, Italy, the Netherlands, Austria, and are also available in Australia and New Zealand. Dispensing units have proven effective in serving hard-to-reach high-risk populations, as the anonymous and confidential nature makes these services accessible to these groups. Currently, Vancouver is the only other city in Canada where you can find harm reduction dispensing units.

How can the harm reduction dispensing units be accessed?
The harm reduction dispensing units can only be accessed by a token that is provided by program staff at one of the partner agencies where the units are located. When people access services for tokens they will also be provided with education about safer drug use, safe equipment disposal and offered information about other health, social and treatment services available. 

Supervised consumption services at Ottawa Public Health

Supervised consumption services

On September 22, 2017, under Section 56.1 of the Controlled Drugs and Substances Act, Health Canada provided an exemption to Ottawa Public Health via the Sandy Hill Community Health Centre authorizing the operation of Supervised Injection Services (SIS) on an interim basis by Ottawa Public Health at 179 Clarence Street. On May 10, 2018, OPH was granted an exemption from the Controlled Drugs & Substance Act (CDSA) to operate a Supervised Consumption Site under the section 56.1 of the CDSA, valid for one year.

The Health Canada exemptions allow OPH to offer health services that provide a hygienic environment for people to either inject, swallow or inhale pre-obtained drugs under supervision. The supervised consumption service (SCS) is staffed with public health employees with experience in harm reduction and trained and authorized to provide supervised consumption services.

While SCS is an important component of any comprehensive approach to working with people who inject, swallow or snort drugs, it will not solve all the issues related to the current opioid crisis.

OPH is working closely with Ottawa Police Services (OPS), the City of Ottawa's Corporate Security Services and Ottawa Community Housing to ensure safety for staff, clients, and the surrounding community and is committed to continuing an ongoing dialogue with the community.

OPH will continue to monitor the situation and work alongside and in support of partners, including local shelters, other local harm reduction service providers, peer-led services and the Ottawa Overdose Prevention and Response Task Force, who all share a common goal of saving lives from potential overdoses.

What are supervised consumption services?

OPH has enhanced its existing harm reduction services by adding a supervised consumption service (SCS) to its existing services for people who inject, swallow or snort drugs (OPH's Site program at 179 Clarence Street). Supervised consumption services are health services that provide a hygienic environment for people to inject pre-obtained drugs under supervision.

Supervised consumption services have four (4) main goals [1] [2]

  1. To reduce spread of infectious diseases (HIV and hepatitis C);
  2. To reduce the number of drug overdose deaths;
  3. To bring people who inject, swallow or snort drugs into contact with other health and social and treatment services; and,
  4. To reduce issues in the community such as drug use in public places, and discarded needles.

In addition to supervised consumption, individuals are provided with sterile injection supplies, clean inhalation supplies, education on safer consumption, overdose prevention and intervention, medical and counselling services, and referrals to drug treatment, housing, income support and other services.

What is the difference between supervised consumption services and overdose prevention services?

The permanency and range of services offered at each site are the main differences between the two.

Overdose Prevention Services (OPS):

Overdose Prevention Services are an extension of existing harm reduction programs that provide easy-to-access, life-saving harm reduction services in a stigma-free environment, to help reduce the growing number of opioid-related overdose deaths. The sites will provide:

        •Supervised injection

        •Harm reduction supplies, including disposal of used supplies


Sites may also provide additional services based on local need and capacity, including supervised oral and intranasal drug consumption and fentanyl test strips as a drug checking service.

OPS that meet the necessary criteria will be approved to operate on a time-limited basis, usually three to six months (with the possibility of extension), by the Province of Ontario. OPS may act as “interim” services as they are set-up rather quickly (only a few weeks) to address an immediate need in the community while waiting to establish Supervised Consumptions Services.  For more information on OPS criteria and application process please visit http://www.health.gov.on.ca/en/news/bulletin/2018/hb_20180111.aspx

Supervised Consumption Services (SCS):

A SCS is tailored to be a permanent site with integrated support services. As such, the application process to Health Canada for a SCS is more complex and involves several steps. The process can take months as it includes fulsome consultations with the community, partners and participants along with selecting and renovating a permanent location. Health Canada grants a one-year exemption and once expired a renewal application is reviewed for another year exemption. SCS must have registered nurses on staff working under medical directives in order to provide medical intervention such as administering oxygen. Another requirement for SCS is to have a network of support services at their sites for individuals, such as addiction treatment programs, counselling and support for permanent housing. At 179 Clarence, the SCS offers direct links to these kinds of services and allows injection, oral or intranasal forms of consumption. 

Why do we need supervised consumption services in Ottawa?

Research has concluded that Ottawa would benefit from multiple supervised consumption services (SCS) that are integrated into health services already working with people who use drugs. Conditions in Ottawa support the need for SCS.

Rates of HIV (10%) and hepatitis C (70%) infection among people who inject drugs in Ottawa are higher than for the general population.[3] In addition, twenty-five percent of people who inject drugs usually or always inject in public places and 19% report sometimes injecting in a public place [4].

A total of 48 Ottawa residents died from unintentional drug overdose in 2015, 29 (60%) of which were due to opioids such as fentanyl, oxycodone, and morphine. [5]  Between 2000 and 2015, the rate of death due to unintentional drug overdose from any drug increased 23% in Ottawa. Unintentional overdose deaths due to opioids were 2.7 times higher during 2009-2015 (24 per year) compared to 2003-2008 (9 per year). For more drug use and overdose statistics, see OPH's website.

Recent anecdotal information from community groups and service agencies are reporting increased numbers of overdoses and deaths. Even though many of these overdoses are not seen in emergency departments, there were nearly 700 drug overdose-related Emergency Department visits during the first half of 2017.

Are other supervised injection/consumption services operating in Ottawa?

Currently there are three other supervised injection sites in Ottawa:

  • Ottawa Inner City Health - Trailer
  • Sandy Hill CHC
  • Somerset West CHC

All of the above are operating under exemptions from the federal Controlled Drugs and Substances Act (CDSA). 

Why is supervised consumption service needed at Ottawa Public Health at this time? Why do we need supervised consumption service if we already have harm reduction services such as needle and syringe programs?

OPH works with over 20 community agencies to provide harm reduction services in Ottawa and is actively working with municipal and community agencies to address the opioid crisis in our community, which includes increasing overdose peer support in the community and ensuring naloxone is readily available to prevent overdoses.

Supervised consumption services will improve harm reduction services that are currently offered in Ottawa. SCS provide a safe, clean, indoor, supervised environment for people to inject, swallow or snort illicit drugs with an opportunity for safer drug use teaching, overdose prevention support, and referral to counselling, withdrawal management, and addiction and other health care services. Without a safe place to use illicit drugs, people may use in isolation thereby increasing the risk of overdose death and/or may inject, swallow or snort in public spaces. Using illicit drugs in public is not only an issue for people who are homeless, but people living in shared accommodation or shelters may be afraid of losing their accommodation if they use on the premises, so they turn to public spaces. [6]Research has found that people who inject drugs will only travel short distances (i.e. a few city blocks) to use health services, including supervised injection services.[7] [8] The SCS will allow OPH to address the ever-growing public health issue and the continued need for opioid overdose prevention services.

How does the supervised consumption service at OPH work?

A number of people who use the services are already existing clients of OPH's Site program.

Clients arrive at the program with pre-obtained drugs. Each person is assessed to ensure they are eligible for the program. Clients are then given sterile injecting equipment or clean inhalation supplies  with instruction on safer drug use. A nurse supervises their consumption in a room dedicated for this purpose, and intervenes in the case of any medical emergencies. Once the clients have consumed their drugs, they are directed to a waiting area, and encouraged to stay for 15 minutes to be observed for any negative drug reactions. Clients also receive information and referrals about other health and social supports. This small-scale service has 2 consumption booths and is located in the Site program's existing location at 179 Clarence Street. The Site program and the supervised consumption service are open Monday to Friday from 9:00 am to 5:00 pm. The SCS is staffed by public health nurses trained in supervised consumption and overdose response, and by outreach/social workers and Peer Educators experienced and trained in harm reduction.

What are the benefits of supervised consumption services?

International and Canadian research shows that supervised consumption services have benefits both for individuals using the services and for the community, including:

  • Reducing the number of drug overdoses and deaths;
  • Reducing risk factors leading to infectious diseases such as HIV and hepatitis;
  • Increasing the use of detox and drug treatment services;
  • Connecting people with other health and social services;
  • Reducing the amount of publicly discarded needles;
  • Cost-effectiveness; and,
  • Not contributing to crime or increased drug use in the local community.
Are supervised consumption services legal?
Yes. In Canada, supervised consumption services operate through an exemption under Section 56.1 of the Controlled Drugs and Substances Act (CDSA). The exemption allows health services to operate without the risk that its clients or staff will be charged for the crime of having illegal drugs. Exemptions are granted by the federal Minister of Health in situations that are seen as "necessary for medical or scientific purpose or is otherwise in the public interest". [9]
Won't these services just encourage more drug use?
People do not start using drugs because of the availability of supervised consumption services. There is no evidence that harm reduction services promote drug use. Supervised consumption services are used mainly by people with a long history of drug use. Research has also found that supervised consumption services do not cause people to relapse (e.g., start using drugs after a period of abstinence) or prevent people from stopping drug use altogether.
Will the supervised consumption service increase crime in the neighbourhood or threaten public health and safety?

Research has shown that harm reduction programs do not increase public disorder or threaten public safety. In fact, they tend to have the opposite effect. Supervised consumption services are located in neighbourhoods where there is a demonstrated need, usually where drug use is already having an impact on the community. Harm reduction programs have a positive impact on public health and safety by:

  • Preventing blood-borne infections such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis C among people using drugs
  • Ensuring that more needles and syringes are disposed of safely through programs, rather than discarded in the community
  • Supporting agreements between police and harm reduction services that ensure drug trafficking laws are enforced. This creates an environment where open drug dealing is discouraged, and people who use drugs are encouraged to access needed services.
How will OPH ensure public and community safety for individuals in the neighbourhood who are not SCS clients?
OPH is working closely with Ottawa Police Services (OPS), Corporate Security and Ottawa Community Housing to ensure safety for staff, clients, and surrounding community.
Will there be an opportunity for community input?

OPH conducted a public consultation in 2016 (see report for results of the consultation). Among the consultation's findings:

  • 66% of respondents thought that having supervised injection services available would be beneficial.
  • 60% of respondents thought that offering harm reduction services in more areas of the city would be beneficial.

Feedback, comments, questions from the public are always welcome using your choice of communications channel. Contact information here.

Supervised Consumption Site Data

Summary of Ottawa consumption and treatment services for July - September 2019
Number of visits 33588
Top drugs reported opioids (including fentanyl, heroin, and other unspecified) and stimulants (including speed, crystal meth and crack cocaine)
Number of overdoses treated with solely oxygen/rescue breathing and stimulation 166
Number of overdoses treated with naloxone 126
Number of clients transported to an emergency department related to an overdose 5
Total number of addiction/counseling, detox program, and opioid withdrawal support and/or treatment (eg. methadone, suboxone) referrals* 247

 Combined data from Ottawa Inner City Health, Somerset West Community Health Centre (CHC), Sandy Hill CHC, and Ottawa Public Health

*Includes data from  Somerset West Community Health Centre (CHC), Sandy Hill CHC, and Ottawa Public Health

Archived data

Ottawa Public Health

Ottawa Inner City Health

Somerset West Community Health Centre

Sandy Hill Community Health Centre

Summary of Ottawa consumption and treatment services for April - June 2019
Number of visits 30202
Top drugs reported opioids (including fentanyl, heroin, and other unspecified) and stimulants (including speed, crystal meth and crack cocaine)
Number of overdoses treated with solely oxygen/rescue breathing and stimulation 278
Number of overdoses treated with naloxone 295
Number of clients transported to an emergency department related to an overdose 6
Total number of service referrals* 2252
Total number of addiction/counseling, detox program, and opioid withdrawal support and/or treatment (eg. methadone, suboxone) referrals* 203

Summary of Ottawa consumption and treatment services for January - March 2019
Number of visits 20433
Top drugs reported fentanyl, speed, heroin, crystal meth, hydromorphone, crack cocaine
Number of overdoses treated with solely oxygen/rescue breathing and stimulation 80
Number of overdoses treated with naloxone 166
Number of clients transported to an emergency department related to an overdose 7
Total number of service referrals 6621
Total number of addiction/counseling, detox program, and opioid withdrawal support and/or treatment (eg. methadone, suboxone) referrals 511

Ottawa Public Health 2019 Supervised Consumption Site Data
Week startingVisits*,†Naloxone administrationsOxygen administrationsCalls to 911 for drug overdose
2019-01-07 189 1 1 0
2019-01-14 177 1 1 1
2019-01-21 208 0 0 0
2019-01-28 218 3 3 1
2019-02-04 188 0 0 0
2019-02-11 163 0 0 0
2019-02-18 155 0 0 0
2019-02-25 118 0 1 0
2019-03-04 163 0 1 0
2019-03-11 196 0 0 0
2019-03-18 234 1 1 1
2019-03-25 230 0 2 0
Ottawa Public Health 2018 Supervised Consumption Site Data
Week startingVisits*,†Naloxone administrationsOxygen administrationsCalls to 911 for drug overdose
2018-01-01 158 0 0 0
2018-01-08 172 0 0 0
2018-01-15 184 0 0 0
2018-01-22 178 0 0 0
2018-01-29 232 2 2 2
2018-02-05 229 0 1 0
2018-02-12 264 0 1 0
2018-02-19 209 1 2 1
2018-02-26 224 0 0 0
2018-03-05 200 0 0 0
2018-03-12 193 0 1 1
2018-03-19 159 0 0 0
2018-03-26 178 0 1 0
2018-04-02 177 1 1 1
2018-04-09 180 0 1 0
2018-04-16 183 0 0 0
2018-04-23 208 1 2 1
2018-04-30 225 0 0 0
2018-05-07 191 0 1 1
2018-05-14 211 0 0 0
2018-05-21 214 0 0 0
2018-05-28 197 2 3 3
2018-06-04 187 3 4 2
2018-06-11 188 1 1 0
2018-06-18 198 0 1 0
2018-06-25 223 1 1 1
2018-07-02 230 0 2 1
2018-07-09 223 0 0 0
2018-07-16 236 1 1 0
2018-07-23 206 0 2 0
2018-07-30 285 4 6 3
2018-08-06 275 0 0 0
2018-08-13 242 1 5 0
2018-08-20 225 1 2 1
2018-08-27 271 0 1 0
2018-09-03 241 0 2 0
2018-09-10 209 2 4 0
2018-09-17 186 1 2 0
2018-09-24 213 2 8 0
2018-10-01 213 1 6 0
2018-10-08 243 2 5 0
2018-10-15 252 0 3 0
2018-10-22 259 0 1 1
2018-10-29 245 1 4 0
2018-11-05 227 2 4 0
2018-11-12 215 1 2 1
2018-11-19 177 2 4 1
2018-11-26 241 4 6 0
2018-12-03 188 0 1 0
2018-12-10 212 0 3 0
2018-12-17 248 2 4 2
2018-12-24 211 1 1 0
2018-12-31 216 0 1 0
Ottawa Public Health 2017 Supervised Consumption Site Data
Week startingVisits*,†Naloxone administrationsOxygen administrations

Calls to 911 for drug overdose

2017-09-25 50‡ 0 0 0
2017-10-02 41 0 1 0
2017-10-09 110§ 0 0 0
2017-10-16 159 0 1 0
2017-10-23 196 0 1 0
2017-10-30 254 0 0 0
2017-11-06 190 0 0 0
2017-11-13 154 0 1 1
2017-11-20 124 0 0 0
2017-11-27 216 0 0 0
2017-12-04 217 0 0 0
2017-12-11 174 1 1 1
2017-12-18 142 0 0 0
2017-12-25 153 0 2 0

* OPH numbers refer to number of visits, not number of clients.  Only visits for supervised injection services are included in these counts.  (Visits only for drug supplies are not included.) 

†An injection does not always occur at a visit for supervised injection services.  During September - December 2017, an injection occurred at 99% of visits.

‡OPH supervised injection services began on September 26, 2017 for 6 hours / day, 7 days / week.

§OPH supervised injection services were offered 12 hours / day, 7 days / week beginning October 10, 2017.

Inner City Health 2018 Supervised Consumption Site Data
Week startingVisitsNaloxone administrationsOxygen administrationsCalls to 911 for drug overdoses
2018-04-23 967 2 2 0
2018-04-30 875 3 4 0
2018-05-07 865 10 10 0
2018-05-14 850 13 13 0
2018-05-21 684 7 7 0
2018-05-28 835 6 6 0
2018-06-04 631 7 7 1
2018-06-11 684 0 0 0
2018-06-18 586 5 5 0
2018-06-25 945 10 10 0
2018-07-02 725 3 3 0
2018-07-09 765 6 7 0
2018-07-16 781 3 3 0
2018-07-23 901 6 5 1
2018-07-30 918 24 24 1
2018-08-06 1027 11 11 0
2018-08-13 1058 20 20 1
2018-08-20 897 14 14 0
2018-08-27 790 16 16 1
2018-09-03 1034 18 18 1
2018-09-10 1020 16 16 1
2018-09-17 1122 16 16 1
2018-09-24 1155 12 12 0
2018-10-01 1044 13 13 2
2018-10-08 1112 11 11 0
2018-10-15 1075 8 8 0
2018-10-22 1036 13 13 1
2018-10-29 340 30 30 0
2018-11-05 332 9 9 1
2018-11-12 777 8 8 1
2018-11-19 725 5 5 0
2018-11-26 745 25 25 2
2018-12-03 773 19 19 0
2018-12-10 908 20 20 0
2018-12-17 916 15 15 1
2018-12-24 761 6 6 0

Somerset West Community Health Centre 2018 Supervised Consumption Site Data
DateVisitsNaloxone administrationsOxygen administrationsCalls to 911 for drug overdose
July - September 2018 1051 7 2 1
October - December 2018 3451 N/A N/A N/A

Sandy Hill Community Health Centre 2018 Supervised Consumption Site Data
Week startingVisitsNaloxone administrationsOxygen administrationsCalls to 911 for drug overdose
2018-04-16 16 0 0 0
2018-04-23 18 0 0 0
2018-04-30 52 0 0 0
2018-05-07 31 0 0 0
2018-05-14 34 0 0 0
2018-05-21 52 0 0 0
2018-05-28 77 1 0 0
2018-06-04 36 0 0 0
2018-06-11 57 0 0 0
2018-06-18 38 0 1 1
2018-06-25 69 1 0 0
2018-07-02 44 0 0 0
2018-07-09 40 1 0 0
2018-07-16 36 0 0 0
2018-07-23 51 0 0 0
2018-07-30 70 0 0 0
2018-08-06 46 1 0 0
2018-08-13 51 1 0 0
2018-08-20 57 0 0 0
2018-08-27 79 1 0 0
2018-09-03 84 0 1 0
2018-09-10 81 1 0 0
2018-09-17 76 0 0 0
2018-09-24 103 1 1 1
2018-10-01 128 0 0 0
2018-10-08 82 0 0 0
2018-10-15 113 1 0 0
2018-10-22 138 1 0 1
2018-10-29 169 7 1 0
2018-11-05 178 3 0 0
2018-11-12 148 3 1 0
2018-11-19 164 0 0 0
2018-11-26 220 2 0 0
2018-12-03 166 3 1 1
2018-12-10 154 1 0 0
2018-12-17 177 4 2 1
2018-12-24 61 1 1 0

Evaluation of OPH's Interim Supervised Injection Service

To respond to an emergency situation in Ottawa, and to enhance harm reduction and help prevent overdoses in the community, Ottawa Public Heath (OPH) started offering supervised injection services (SIS) on an interim basis at its Clarence Street location. Between September 2017 and December 2017, OPH evaluated the implementation and operations of its interim SIS. The evaluation monitored how the services were used (i.e. client data, services provided) and the experiences of four distinct groups: clients, employees, neighbours (residents and businesses) and community partners. We gathered information through: a review of clinical forms; client comment cards; focus groups with partners and employees; surveys with clients and with neighbours (collected by going door-to-door); and, secondary data sources, such as police data and calls/contacts to 311 and OPH’s contact centre.

OPH’s Interim SIS, by the numbers (September 26, 2017 – January 22, 2018)

  • 174 unique clients served
  • +1,800 on-site health services provided
  • 85% of clients received health services on-site
  • 25% of clients were referred to other services
  • +70 referrals (health care 83%, mental health 28%, housing 21%, opioid substitution therapy 14%)

Here is what our stakeholders told us:

Overall, clients were satisfied with the various services received. Clients told us they:

  • Felt safer when they use drugs at the SIS (93%)
  • Injected in public less often (87%)
  • Thought more about reducing or stopping using drugs (60%)
  • Injected alone (by themselves) less often (77%)
  • Felt that their drug use was more stable/less chaotic (77%)
  • Reported a strong likelihood of recommending the service to other people who inject drugs (97%)
  • Believed that staff provided good support (97%)
  • Felt that staff had talked/helped them access other services (70%)

Selected quotes from clients:

  • "I have overdosed at least 5 times in my life; since you opened I haven’t overdosed."
  • "I feel I am supported and accepted even though I am a drug addict. I feel that I matter."
  • "I have never felt like I can talk with health professionals so openly about my drug use. I am able to talk about others issues in my life. E.g. the other day they helped me by connecting me with mental health. All around they’ve been very helpful." 

Employees are passionate about helping SIS clients and they enjoy their therapeutic relationships with clients. Team collaboration is strong. Overall, they are satisfied with their additional roles and responsibilities at the SIS. 

Some recommendations from employees:

  • Implement a workplace employee peer-support program
  • Develop a formal training plan
  • Develop a sustainable and more comprehensive model that includes best practices

Neighbours (residents, businesses)
Neighbours have diverse opinions regarding their support for SIS and about the impact that OPH’s interim SIS has had on them,

  • 51% support SIS
  • 37% not supportive
  • 12% were undecided

Regarding the impact of OPH opening an interim SIS in the neighborhood,

  • 44% indicated the impact has been “negative” or “very negative”
  • 39% reported the impact has been “positive” or “very positive”
  • 7% were “neutral”

Concerns expressed by residents include: threats to personal safety, damage to public and personal property, dissatisfaction with officials when responding to their issues and concerns, and an increase in disruptive/nuisance behaviors in the neighborhood.

The majority believed that OPH’s interim SIS has had no impact on their organization. Those who indicated that there was a negative impact perceive an increase presence of public drug use. While partners talked about public injecting, there were mixed perspectives on whether public injecting has increased or decreased as a result of the new SIS. Partners who were involved in advising OPH on its interim SIS were satisfied with their involvement. There are several factors external to OPH that may have influenced implementation and the experience of those involved with and impacted by the SIS. This included the opening and ending of operations of Overdose Prevention Ottawa’s ‘pop-up’ tent in Raphael Brunet Park and the opening of Shepherds of Good Hope’s SIS trailer; changes in drug use patterns among people who use drugs; and increasing number of overdoses in the community. There is agreement amongst community partners that there are many factors not related to OPH’s SIS that may have impacted the community. As such, it is difficult to attribute causality between OPH’s interim SIS and any impact on the community and partner agencies’ operations. 

For more information:
View the Harm Reduction and Overdose Prevention Follow-up Report received and approved by the Ottawa Board of Health on February 5, 2018.


1. Strike, C et al. (2012). Toronto and Ottawa Supervised Consumption Assessment Study. Available online:  http://www.stmichaelshospital.com/pdf/research/SMH-TOSCA-report.pdf

2. Fischer, B et al. (2002). Safer injection facilities (SIFs) for injection drug users (IDUs) in Canada, Canadian Journal of Public Health, 93(3), 336-338

3. I-Track, HIV & HCV Prevention Research Team, University of Ottawa, 2015.

4. Findings of the Ottawa Harm Reduction Needs Assessment Report, Ottawa Public Health, 2014

5. Office of the Chief Coroner for Ontario, extracted June 7, 2016. 

6. Toronto Public Health. (2013). Supervised Injection Services Toolkit. Available online: http://www.toronto.ca/legdocs/mmis/2013/hl/bgrd/backgroundfile-59914.pdf

7. Toronto Public Health. (2013). Supervised Injection Services Toolkit. Available online: http://www.toronto.ca/legdocs/mmis/2013/hl/bgrd/backgroundfile-59914.pdf

8. Strike, C et al. (2012). Toronto and Ottawa Supervised Consumption Assessment Study. Available online: http://www.stmichaelshospital.com/pdf/research/SMH-TOSCA-report.pdf 

9. Controlled Drugs and Substances Act. (S.C. 1996, c.19).  


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